Avionics News September 2014 - 45

is the ability to determine position and follow a route.
Finally, a system is a set of connected parts. Put this
all together, and you have a set of connected parts with
the means to determine position and follow a course
independently. Historically speaking, a system as simple
as a compass and stopwatch connected together by a
pilot would be considered an ANS.
Perhaps this is the reason the ANS knowledge
requirements ask technicians to be familiar with Elmer
Sperry's first use of gyroscopic instruments. Moreover,
the NCATT asks those taking the ANS endorsement
exam to have a well-rounded knowledge of many types
of instrument systems. The knowledge is useful, even for
technicians working on equipment without IRS or INS.
The textbook Avionics: Beyond the AET guides
students in their studies toward the ANS endorsement
exam. This text begins with a
description of the wet compass. Once
the reader has an understanding
of wet compass limitations and
behaviors, he or she is ready to
continue into the NCATT-required
material on slaved compass systems.
Those studying for the ANS
endorsement exam should become
familiar with the purpose, types,
components and configurations of this
common form of direction indicating system.
Of course, the slaved compass system relies on a
gyro. Those studying may be taken back to high school
physics, since they will be tested on basic gyroscopic
concepts that apply to all types of gyros.
In a more practical sense, those preparing for the
ANS endorsement exam should become familiar with
the various types of gyro power systems, how they
are configured and at what speed gyros spin. Not only
should technicians understand the concept of precession
and precessive forces, but also they should understand
what affect these forces have on the types of gyros used
in aviation. In addition, they should grasp the effects of
bearing wear. Finally, they need to understand how the
various types of gyros are gimbaled.
Those studying for the ANS endorsement exam should
familiarize themselves with vertical gyros. They should

be familiar with how they are interpreted, and what can
happen when the limits of the gimbals are exceeded.
Not only is it important for the technician to
understand the mechanical gyros found in aircraft, but
also the various types of solid-state position sensing
and indicating systems. The dedicated student will find
themselves becoming familiar with various types of laser
gyros and accelerometers, including microelectronic
mechanical sensors. A side effect of study for the
ANS endorsement exam is the technician will gain
a deeper understanding of how his or her telephone
senses position and orientation. One of the values
of this endorsement is the large amount of crossover
knowledge. Although an IRS may use laser gyros, a
system such as the Aspen will use MEMS in a similar
way. The principles transfer.

In today's environment, solid-state position sensing
is rapidly replacing mechanical gyros. As a result, those
preparing for the ANS endorsement exam will need to
learn about magnetometers in addition to flux gates.
Often, these are used with attitude heading reference
systems. Most IRS- or INS-equipped aircraft will have
an air-data system. In addition, many smaller aircraft
will have an air-data heading reference system. With
an ADHRS, the technician delves into the world of
pressure-sensing instruments.
Those studying for the ANS endorsement exam must
become familiar with the components of a pitot-static
system, the various types of airspeed, and how all this
ties together for air data, or for air-data inertial reference
units.
Continued on following page
avionics news

*

september

2014

45



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Avionics News September 2014

Point of Communication
AEA Now
The View from Washington
International News and Regulatory Updates
Software Management
Member Profile
Keeping a business in the family
Are digital avionics secure?
A Conversation With...
Meet the AEA board of directors
Before & After
The Autonomous Navigation Systems AET Endorsement
Aviation Aces
Legal Ease
Business Basics
Member Profile
AEA members unveil new ADS-B solutions at AirVenture
What's New
Marketplace Classifieds
Avionics News September 2014 - Intro
Avionics News September 2014 - Cover1
Avionics News September 2014 - Cover2
Avionics News September 2014 - 1
Avionics News September 2014 - 2
Avionics News September 2014 - 3
Avionics News September 2014 - Point of Communication
Avionics News September 2014 - 5
Avionics News September 2014 - AEA Now
Avionics News September 2014 - 7
Avionics News September 2014 - 8
Avionics News September 2014 - 9
Avionics News September 2014 - 10
Avionics News September 2014 - 11
Avionics News September 2014 - 12
Avionics News September 2014 - 13
Avionics News September 2014 - The View from Washington
Avionics News September 2014 - 15
Avionics News September 2014 - International News and Regulatory Updates
Avionics News September 2014 - 17
Avionics News September 2014 - 18
Avionics News September 2014 - 19
Avionics News September 2014 - Software Management
Avionics News September 2014 - 21
Avionics News September 2014 - 22
Avionics News September 2014 - 23
Avionics News September 2014 - Member Profile
Avionics News September 2014 - 25
Avionics News September 2014 - 26
Avionics News September 2014 - 27
Avionics News September 2014 - Keeping a business in the family
Avionics News September 2014 - 29
Avionics News September 2014 - 30
Avionics News September 2014 - 31
Avionics News September 2014 - 32
Avionics News September 2014 - 33
Avionics News September 2014 - Are digital avionics secure?
Avionics News September 2014 - 35
Avionics News September 2014 - 36
Avionics News September 2014 - 37
Avionics News September 2014 - A Conversation With...
Avionics News September 2014 - 39
Avionics News September 2014 - Meet the AEA board of directors
Avionics News September 2014 - 41
Avionics News September 2014 - Before & After
Avionics News September 2014 - 43
Avionics News September 2014 - The Autonomous Navigation Systems AET Endorsement
Avionics News September 2014 - 45
Avionics News September 2014 - 46
Avionics News September 2014 - 47
Avionics News September 2014 - Aviation Aces
Avionics News September 2014 - 49
Avionics News September 2014 - 50
Avionics News September 2014 - 51
Avionics News September 2014 - Legal Ease
Avionics News September 2014 - 53
Avionics News September 2014 - 54
Avionics News September 2014 - 55
Avionics News September 2014 - 56
Avionics News September 2014 - 57
Avionics News September 2014 - Business Basics
Avionics News September 2014 - 59
Avionics News September 2014 - 60
Avionics News September 2014 - 61
Avionics News September 2014 - 62
Avionics News September 2014 - 63
Avionics News September 2014 - Member Profile
Avionics News September 2014 - 65
Avionics News September 2014 - AEA members unveil new ADS-B solutions at AirVenture
Avionics News September 2014 - 67
Avionics News September 2014 - 68
Avionics News September 2014 - 69
Avionics News September 2014 - 70
Avionics News September 2014 - 71
Avionics News September 2014 - What's New
Avionics News September 2014 - 73
Avionics News September 2014 - 74
Avionics News September 2014 - 75
Avionics News September 2014 - 76
Avionics News September 2014 - 77
Avionics News September 2014 - Marketplace Classifieds
Avionics News September 2014 - 79
Avionics News September 2014 - 80
Avionics News September 2014 - Cover3
Avionics News September 2014 - Cover4
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/56-10
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/56-9
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/56-8
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/56-7
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/56-6
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/56-5
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/56-4
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/56-3
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/56-2
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/56-1
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/55-12
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/55-11
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/55-10
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/55-9
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/55-8
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/55-7
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/55-6
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/55-5
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/55-4
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/55-3
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/55-02
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/55-01
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/54-12
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/54-11
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/54-10
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/54-9
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/54-8
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/54-7
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/54-6
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/54-5
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/54-4
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/54-3
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/54-2
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/54-1
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/53-12
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/53-11
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/53-10
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/53-9
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/53-8
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/53-7
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/53-6
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/53-5
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/53-4
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/53-3
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/53-2
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/53-1
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/52-12
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/52-11
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/52-10
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/52-9
http://www.brightcopy.net/allen/avne/52-8
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/52-7
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/52-6
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/52-5
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/52-4
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/52-3
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/52-2
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/52-1
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/51-12
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/51-11
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/51-10
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/51-9
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/51-8
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/51-7
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/51-6
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/51-5
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/51-4
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/51-3
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/51-2
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/51-1
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/50-12
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/50-11
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/50-10
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/50-9
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/50-8
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/50-7
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/50-6
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/50-5
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/50-4
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/50-3
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/50-2
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/50-1
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/49-12
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/49-11
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/49-10
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/49-9
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/49-8
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/49-7
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/49-6
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/49-5
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/49-4
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/49-3
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/49-2
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/49-1
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/48-12
http://www.nxtbook.com/allen/avne/48-11
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com