Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 25

WATER & WASTEWATER
systems
Opposite page:
Left. Extending the life of R/O membrane fibers is accomplished through pH adjustment and by administering scale
inhibitors-both of which are dosed using metering pumps.
Photo courtesy of LMI, Milton Roy.
Right. To protect piping infrastructure, scale inhibitors are
dosed using metering pumps. Photo courtesy of Pulsafeeder.

manufacturers, or businesses such as hotels and restaurants. Some of
the processes used include reverse osmosis (RO), pH adjustment, and
scale inhibitors.
Reverse osmosis. RO treatment processes work by using a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules, and particles from
water. "By applying pressure that is greater than the naturally occurring
osmotic pressure, the water seeps through the membrane, while the
larger molecules or ions remain trapped in the membrane," explained
Fluid Systems & Controls (FSC, New Berlin, WI, fscinc.com) president
Donn Davis. "This process demineralizes the water."
In areas such as Florida and throughout the Southeastern United
States, Davis said he sees a growing demand for RO applications and
the associated treatment and maintenance applications that come with
maintaining RO systems.
"FSC works with OEMs that build large-scale reverse-osmosis systems," Davis said. "Metering pumps are used to move pump chemicals
that clean and maintain the RO membranes."
RO membrane fibers are cellulose based. They degrade in alkaline
conditions, which results in a loss of efficiency. Long-term exposure to
alkaline conditions leads to membrane replacement, which is extremely
expensive. According to Davis, extending the life of the membrane
fibers is accomplished in two primary ways-through pH adjustment
and by administering scale inhibitors-both of which are dosed using
metering pumps.

pH adjustment. Raw pre-treated water tends to be slightly alkaline.
To protect the membrane, the pH of alkaline raw water is adjusted to
neutral, by injecting precise amounts of acids (typically hydrochloric
acid), to lower the pH.
Once the treated (or permeated) water passes through the membrane, it can become slightly acidic. To deliver the best water quality
possible, the pH is often re-adjusted using caustics (typically sodium bicarbonate) to achieve a neutral pH. Metering pumps are primarily used
to inject the precise amounts of caustics needed for the process.
The specifics of pH balancing are not as stringent as what a
municipal drinking-water plant would administer, however the timing of
the treatment is uncompromising. Power plants run 24/7 operations and
cannot function without abundant supplies of treated water. As such, the
pumps used must be highly reliable and able to run continuously.
Following the initial treatment, process water flows to a flocculation
basin where chemicals are dosed using metering pumps to aggregate
precipitated particles, making them easier to filter out. After this treatment, the coagulated particles settle in a basin where they separate
from water and are sent to a sludge-treatment facility.
Scale inhibitors. Other water-treatment applications include administering scale inhibitors for cooling towers. Although water is ideally
suited for cooling purposes, its life-giving properties can encourage bacterial growth that can foul system surfaces. Water also dissolves gases
(oxygen and carbon dioxide), which can corrode metals. If untreated,
scale deposits and fouling can reduce heat transfer and diminish the
plant's efficiency. To protect plant equipment, precise doses of sulfuric
acid or phosphate are added to the cooling-tower water to mitigate scaling and to prevent fouling, Crowley explained.
"Once the process water is used, it must be treated before it can
be disposed," he said. "Most power plants have their own wastewatertreatment plants, and these units administer another round of pH adjustment, plus any other treatments required to meet the local environmental-discharge limits."
One by-product of the RO process is that suspended solids,

SEVEN TRENDS TO WATCH IN 2017
Bluefield Research (Boston, bluefieldresearch.com) has forecast seven trends to
watch in 2017, and they show significant
opportunities for private corporations. These
include an emphasis on big data and the
Internet of Things, as well as new business
models driven by rising water and wastewater
bills. Water rates are rising at an average 7%
every year, Bluefield stated.
Through its ongoing market tracking and

AUGUST 2017

analysis, Bluefield's water experts anticipate
shifts across municipal and industrial water
markets. Seven key trends that will have an
impact on the water industry in 2017 include:
* Infrastructure investment at the forefront.
* Rate escalation sets the stage for businessmodel innovation.
* Developed markets forced to confront aging
networks.
* Water gets smart with an emphasis on Big
Data and IoT.

* Bottom line enables innovation for industrials.
* California sets the stage for water reuse.
* Private sector looks to water for opportunity.
Additional analysis from the firm's experts about each signpost is available, at no
cost, at bluefieldresearch.com/research/top7-water-market-shifts/. The forecast provides
valuable insight for environmental managers
and water companies about what to expect
and market opportunities.

RELIABLE PUMPING SUPPLEMENT | 25


http://www.fscinc.com http://www.search.com http://www.bluefieldresearch.com/research/top-7-water-market-shifts

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Maintenance Technology August 2017

Editorial
Uptime
On The Floor
Reliable Security, Reliable Operations
Highly Charged Reliability
Drowning in Data? Look to the 'Stars'
Reliable Pumping Supplement
SAP: Tips and Tricks
Steam-Trap Inspections
Saving Tribal Knowledge
Seats for Butterfly Valves
IIoT
ISO 55000
Understand Lube ID Systems
Tomato Processor Boosts Steam Output, Cuts Emissions
Products
Ad Index
Showcase
Final Thought
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 1
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - Cover1
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - Cover2
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 1
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 2
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 3
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - Editorial
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 5
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - Uptime
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 7
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - On The Floor
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 9
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - Reliable Security, Reliable Operations
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 11
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 12
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 13
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 14
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 15
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - Highly Charged Reliability
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 17
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 18
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - Drowning in Data? Look to the 'Stars'
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 20
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 21
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 22
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - Reliable Pumping Supplement
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 24
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 25
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 26
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 27
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 28
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 29
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 30
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - SAP: Tips and Tricks
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - Steam-Trap Inspections
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - Saving Tribal Knowledge
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - Seats for Butterfly Valves
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - IIoT
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - ISO 55000
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - Understand Lube ID Systems
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 38
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 39
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - Tomato Processor Boosts Steam Output, Cuts Emissions
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 41
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 42
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - Products
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 44
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - 45
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - Ad Index
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - Showcase
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - Final Thought
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - Cover3
Maintenance Technology August 2017 - Cover4
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