Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 28

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GUEST VIEWPOINT

Cyber Security: What Port
Authorities Need to Know
By Art Linton

T

he frequency and severity of
maritime cyber-attacks increases
every year. Often, damage is
ongoing and not discovered for
years. A cyber-attack on the port of Antwerp
in 2011 continued until it was discovered
in 2013. The Danish Maritime Authority
was attacked in 2012 by a virus contained in
an email. The contagion spread throughout
the Maritime Authority's network and
Danish government institutions before it
was discovered in 2014. Reasons for the
ever-increasing security exposure include
the growing use and interdependence of
electronic systems, the relative ease and
extreme value of successful attacks, and
the exceptional difficulty in identifying the
culprits and bringing them to justice.
Port authorities sometimes contribute
to their vulnerability by addressing cyber
security as a technology matter handled
solely by IT professionals. On the contrary,
successful and serious cyber attacks are
inevitable and the planned response must be
subject to the same governance and scrutiny
that any existential threat would receive.
28

AAPA SEAPORTS MAGAZINE

Effective cyber-risk governance does not
require a degree in computer science.
However, an understanding of the dynamics
of cyber-vulnerability can assist directors in
setting protection priorities and overseeing
contingency and remediation plans.
Cyber-risk is a relatively new issue at ports,
some of which have been in continuous
operation for hundreds or even thousands
of years. In contrast, the navigation systems,
command and control electronics and Internet
access on which every modern port's operation
depends, have developed in the most recent 50
years. While computer security is a priority for
port management, its development has been
evolutionary, almost invariably following in
the wake of already successful and damaging
intrusions. Access controls and passwords
were introduced in the 1960s, encryption
followed a decade later, firewalls and malware
detection came along in the 1980s, virtual
private networks, biometrics and two-factor
authentication were not common until the
1990s. More recently, secure programming
processes, threat intelligence sharing and
Wi-Fi security have become standard.

Most port-based electronic systems
are closed to the public. Authorized users
are required to provide some means of
identification such as a password. Further,
to avoid interference with system operation
or other users, accidental or intentional
destruction of files, or introduction of
malicious code, computer systems restrict
what each authorized user is permitted to do.
These restrictions rely on sophisticated access
controls embedded in commercial operating
systems and hardware. Access controls secure
data within a particular system, but do not
protect data moving over a network. Data
in transit increases complexity and requires
additional techniques such as encryption
and traffic monitoring for suspicious activity
on the network. Worse, communication is
vulnerable to virtually undetectable passive
surveillance by criminals wishing to monetize
valuable information.
Cyber-attacks are difficult to predict
because their point of origin and purpose are
virtually impossible to anticipate. Moreover,
every electronic device and computer is an
attractive point of entry because they all



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017

AAPA Headquarters
From the President’s Desk
Stakeholders: A Seaport’s Secret Resource
Why Ports Need Allies: Maintaining a Working Waterfront Takes a Network of Supporters
The Next Generation of Leaders — Succession Planning Provides Security, Guidance for Future
Port Security — An Exercise in Partnerships
Lessons From the Past: A Renewed Commentary on Port Security
Cyber Security: What Port Authorities Need to Know
Tomorrow’s Leaders Need More Than On-the-Job Training
Index of Advertisers
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - Intro
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - bellyband1
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - bellyband2
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - cover1
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - cover2
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 3
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 4
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 5
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - AAPA Headquarters
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 7
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - From the President’s Desk
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 9
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - Stakeholders: A Seaport’s Secret Resource
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 11
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 12
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 13
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - Why Ports Need Allies: Maintaining a Working Waterfront Takes a Network of Supporters
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 15
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 16
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 17
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - The Next Generation of Leaders — Succession Planning Provides Security, Guidance for Future
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 19
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 20
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 21
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - Port Security — An Exercise in Partnerships
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 23
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 24
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 25
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - Lessons From the Past: A Renewed Commentary on Port Security
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 27
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - Cyber Security: What Port Authorities Need to Know
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 29
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 30
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 31
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - Tomorrow’s Leaders Need More Than On-the-Job Training
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 33
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - Index of Advertisers
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - cover3
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - cover4
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - divider1
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - divider2
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 41
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 42
Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - 43
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Seaports Magazine - Summer 2017 - outsert1
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