The Consultant - 2018 - 40

FEATURE

Invasive Species
DR. DAVID R. COYLE

I

nvasive species - they're bad, they kill
native species, they cost us money. We
hear these statements all the time. So,
what, exactly, are invasive species?
Where do they come from? How do they
affect us? What can we do about them?
Anything - plant, animal, fungus - not
originally from this country is considered an exotic (or alien or non-native)
species. But an invasive species has two
characteristics: it's not from this country and it's doing great damage from a
financial or ecological perspective. Maybe
it's contributing to the death of native
trees or greatly reducing the amount of a
tree growth in a stand. In either case, it's
causing measurable damage. This is what
differentiates invasive species from alien/
exotic/non-native species.
Forests across the United States are
under constant threat from invasive
species. We live in an era where crosscontinental travel and trade is at an alltime high, and will likely keep increasing.
In nearly all cases, invasive species are
inadvertently (though sometimes on purpose) brought here by humans, usually in
shipping containers or on airplanes. Once
here, they're often spread by movement
of infected material (especially wood or
wood products) by people, like hauling a
load of firewood from one place to another.
In fact, this mode of invasive species transportation is so common there is a major
program in the U.S. and Canada called
the "Don't Move Firewood" program
(https://www.dontmovefirewood.org/).
Let's take a look at some of the most
important invasive species in U.S. forests
and what we can do to better manage
them once they're there or, better yet,
prevent them from ever getting there in
the first place.
Many management strategies involve
the use of pesticides. Always read and
follow the herbicide label for specific
information concerning applications
40

near water and in grazed areas, nontarget injury, specific rates and application guidance. Keep in mind that it is
illegal to use herbicides in a manner that
is inconsistent with the label. It is highly
recommended to contact a professional
when working with herbicides. A free
publication on invasive plant management is available at https://www.srs.
fs.usda.gov/pubs/36915.

INVASIVE PLANTS
Shrubs
The two most common invasive shrubs
impacting forests in the U.S. are privet
(Ligustrum spp.) and bush honeysuckle
(Lonicera spp.).
Privet (There's a Chinese and Japanese
type; both are in the U.S.) was originally
brought to the U.S. back in the 1700s as a
landscape plant and is still a commonly
planted shrub, used in hedges and landscapes all over much of the southeastern
U.S. But if allowed to grow, this shrub
will produce lots of berries that birds
gladly eat and spread to new areas (after
the digestive process has occurred). This
has contributed to the rapid spread of
privet in natural areas, where it crowds
out native plants. Just having privet
(instead of native plants) contributes to
a reduction in butterflies, bees and other
pollinators. While birds readily eat the
fruit, they get very little nutritional value
(think of privet seeds as fast food for
birds - tasty, but not very good for them).
Honeysuckle may be the most widely
distributed invasive shrub in the U.S.,
and is spread similarly to privet. There are
several non-native species (collectively
called "bush honeysuckles," they include
Japanese, Amur, Morrow's, Standish's
and Sweet-breath-of-spring), all of which
have a similar life history and impact on
forest systems. These, like privet, were
introduced as ornamentals in the mid
to late 1800s.

Privet and bush honeysuckle shrubs
are detrimental in commercial forestry
situations. In areas with a lot of invasive shrubs, measures have to be taken
to remove the plants before commercial
trees are harvested. If this doesn't happen,
they will completely take over the area
the minute the mature trees are removed,
and it will be nearly impossible to replant
trees in that area until the invasive shrubs
are eliminated.
Privet is the first thing to green up
in the spring, and easily visible in most
understory areas. This particular trait
makes privet most effectively managed
with early spring foliar applications of
herbicide (a 3-5 percent glyphosate solution works well). Cut-stump applications
of glyphosate (at least 20 percent) or triclopyr amine (at least 8 percent) also work
well for both privet and bush honeysuckles any time of the year except spring
(because at this time the plant is moving
fluids upward in the stem, not down to
the roots). In some cases, repeated fires
can kill bush honeysuckle seedlings and
will top-kill established plants, which
will resprout. For these and all invasive
plants, plan on multiple years of treatment
to eradicate the population, as there is
often a healthy seed bank waiting for an
opportunity to sprout.
Trees
Tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) was
first brought to the U.S. in the late 1700s
as a landscape tree and is now common
throughout much of the continental U.S.
Tree-of-heaven spreads by root sprouts
(especially after being cut) and by seed. It
was recently found that a 40-year-old tree
could produce about 10 million seeds over
its lifetime. This tree grows incredibly
fast and produces chemicals (called allelopathic chemicals) that inhibit growth
of other plants. While the trees aren't
shade-tolerant, they are extremely good
THE CONSULTANT

2018


https://www.srsfs.usda.gov/pubs/36915 https://www.srsfs.usda.gov/pubs/36915 https://www.dontmovefirewood.org/

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of The Consultant - 2018

From the Executive Director End Notes
From the President ACF: Forestry, Fellowship and Value
Sharing the Stories of the Trees: ACF Distinguished Forester Jim Able
Maple Syrup: A Steigerwaldt Family Tradition
The South Carolina Chapter and Forestry Students
The Association of Consulting Foresters Celebrates 70 Years
Carbon Offsets: A Viable Opportunity for Forest Landowners?
Changes of Biblical Proportions
Forests for Fish In Michigan, Foresters and Anglers are Learning from Each Other
Case Study: Richland Township Woods, North Central Indiana
Invasive Species 101
Evaluating Forest Inventory Technology for Small Landowners
Choosing the Right Accountant or Tax Preparer
The History of Forestry in Ireland
The American Oak Project Midleton Distillery Creates Rare Irish Whiskey to Promote Sustainable Forestry
Products & Services Marketplace
Index of Advertisers
Why not Surround Yourself with the Best?
The Consultant - 2018 - Intro
The Consultant - 2018 - cover1
The Consultant - 2018 - cover2
The Consultant - 2018 - 3
The Consultant - 2018 - 4
The Consultant - 2018 - 5
The Consultant - 2018 - From the Executive Director End Notes
The Consultant - 2018 - From the President ACF: Forestry, Fellowship and Value
The Consultant - 2018 - Sharing the Stories of the Trees: ACF Distinguished Forester Jim Able
The Consultant - 2018 - 9
The Consultant - 2018 - 10
The Consultant - 2018 - 11
The Consultant - 2018 - Maple Syrup: A Steigerwaldt Family Tradition
The Consultant - 2018 - 13
The Consultant - 2018 - 14
The Consultant - 2018 - 15
The Consultant - 2018 - The South Carolina Chapter and Forestry Students
The Consultant - 2018 - 17
The Consultant - 2018 - 18
The Consultant - 2018 - 19
The Consultant - 2018 - The Association of Consulting Foresters Celebrates 70 Years
The Consultant - 2018 - 21
The Consultant - 2018 - Carbon Offsets: A Viable Opportunity for Forest Landowners?
The Consultant - 2018 - 23
The Consultant - 2018 - 24
The Consultant - 2018 - 25
The Consultant - 2018 - 26
The Consultant - 2018 - 27
The Consultant - 2018 - Changes of Biblical Proportions
The Consultant - 2018 - 29
The Consultant - 2018 - 30
The Consultant - 2018 - 31
The Consultant - 2018 - 32
The Consultant - 2018 - 33
The Consultant - 2018 - Forests for Fish In Michigan, Foresters and Anglers are Learning from Each Other
The Consultant - 2018 - 35
The Consultant - 2018 - 36
The Consultant - 2018 - 37
The Consultant - 2018 - Case Study: Richland Township Woods, North Central Indiana
The Consultant - 2018 - 39
The Consultant - 2018 - Invasive Species 101
The Consultant - 2018 - 41
The Consultant - 2018 - 42
The Consultant - 2018 - 43
The Consultant - 2018 - Evaluating Forest Inventory Technology for Small Landowners
The Consultant - 2018 - 45
The Consultant - 2018 - 46
The Consultant - 2018 - Choosing the Right Accountant or Tax Preparer
The Consultant - 2018 - The History of Forestry in Ireland
The Consultant - 2018 - 49
The Consultant - 2018 - 50
The Consultant - 2018 - 51
The Consultant - 2018 - The American Oak Project Midleton Distillery Creates Rare Irish Whiskey to Promote Sustainable Forestry
The Consultant - 2018 - 53
The Consultant - 2018 - 54
The Consultant - 2018 - 55
The Consultant - 2018 - Products & Services Marketplace
The Consultant - 2018 - 57
The Consultant - 2018 - 58
The Consultant - 2018 - 59
The Consultant - 2018 - Index of Advertisers
The Consultant - 2018 - 61
The Consultant - 2018 - Why not Surround Yourself with the Best?
The Consultant - 2018 - cover3
The Consultant - 2018 - cover4
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert1
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert2
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert3
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert4
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert5
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert6
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