The Consultant - 2018 - 41

INVASIVE SPECIES 101

Chinese tallow tree.

at being the first to colonize light patches
from blowdowns or harvests, and that's
all they need to get established and limit
growth of native, more commerciallyrelevant tree species.
Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera),
believed to be brought to the U.S. by
Benjamin Franklin in the late 1700s, was
initially envisioned as an agricultural
crop (the high tallow concentration in
the seeds was to be used in a growing
soap industry). Unfortunately, that didn't
work out, and the tree became arguably
the worst invasive tree in the U.S. It is a
prolific seed producer (a mature tree can
produce up to 100,000 seeds per year!),
and sprouts readily from cut stumps or
root suckers. Because of its bright red fall
foliage, some people still like Chinese
tallow as a landscape tree. The tree can
form dense thickets, crowding out native
vegetation and even negatively impacting
vertebrates like amphibians because of
the chemistry of the decomposing leaves.
Fire is rarely an option for invasive tree
control, as most invasive trees respond
to fire stress by vigorously resprouting
(though there is limited evidence prescribed fire may reduce tree-of-heaven
seed germination rates). As such,
mechanical methods and chemical control are most often recommended. Foliar
THE CONSULTANT

2018

wisteria vines spiral clockwise, while
Japanese wisteria vines spiral counterclockwise.) This vine has bright pink/
purple flowers and is often thought to
be a very beautiful part of the landscape
in the spring.
Kudzu (Pueraria spp.), nicknamed
"the vine that ate the South," is common throughout much of the eastern U.S.,
especially along roadsides and powerlines. This green vine grows over any and
everything, including trees, buildings and
up power lines. Originally brought to
the U.S. in the late 1800s, it was thought
kudzu could act as a landscape plant, a
forage for livestock and would be useful
to prevent soil erosion on steep slopes.
Instead, this plant has spread over vast
swaths of the southeastern U.S., completely choking out other vegetation.
Japanese climbing fern (Lygodium
japonicum) was introduced to Georgia as
an ornamental in the early 1900s and has
since spread throughout the deep South.
This invasive plant reproduces vegetatively and by spores, which are hearty
and can travel long distances in the wind.
Further, pieces of Japanese climbing fern
can be inadvertently collected and spread
in bales of pine straw. This plant can act as
a fire ladder, allowing fire to climb dead

Grass
Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) - one of
the worst invasive weeds in the world -
is native to Asia and was introduced to
the southern U.S. both unintentionally
(as packing material) and intentionally (as potential forage for livestock).
Cogongrass spreads through rhizomes
and, to a lesser extent, by seed. It forms
dense monocultures and competes with
trees for water and nutrients. There is
evidence that dense cogongrass cover
can reduce tree fine root growth and
native plant regeneration. Cogongrass
burns readily and extremely hot - hot
enough to kill fire-tolerant tree species
like longleaf pine - and for this reason
fire is not a viable control option. Multiple
treatments of chemical (glyphosate/imazapyr) are required to eliminate cogongrass once an infestation has occurred.
Due to the severity and spread potential
of this weed, it is highly recommended to
contact a local state or extension forester
for assistance. In many cases, there are
programs to help combat cogongrass in
forestry settings.
Vines
Several invasive vines can be problems in
forest settings. Generally, they are a problem on forest edges and in clearings. Their
impacts vary depending on the size of the
forest trees. In younger stands, invasive
vines can grow over the top of trees, acting as a blanket that blocks sunlight and
bends/injures terminals. In older stands
the weight of the vines can cause branch
breakage, and in some cases old, dead
vines can act as fire ladders, providing a
means for a fire to reach the tree canopy.
Wisteria (Wisteria spp.) is an invasive
vine that was originally used as an ornamental plant. There is a Chinese species
and a Japanese species, and they're quite
similar in appearance. (Fun fact: Chinese

PHOTO BY DAVID COYLE.

PHOTO BY NANCY LOEWENSTEIN, AUBURN UNIVERSITY.

applications of 2 percent imazapyr or
triclopyr to seedlings can be effective,
while basal bark treatments of 25 percent triclopyr ester have also been proven
effective. Several chemical options are
available for cut-stump control.

Wisteria in full bloom near Athens, GA.
41



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of The Consultant - 2018

From the Executive Director End Notes
From the President ACF: Forestry, Fellowship and Value
Sharing the Stories of the Trees: ACF Distinguished Forester Jim Able
Maple Syrup: A Steigerwaldt Family Tradition
The South Carolina Chapter and Forestry Students
The Association of Consulting Foresters Celebrates 70 Years
Carbon Offsets: A Viable Opportunity for Forest Landowners?
Changes of Biblical Proportions
Forests for Fish In Michigan, Foresters and Anglers are Learning from Each Other
Case Study: Richland Township Woods, North Central Indiana
Invasive Species 101
Evaluating Forest Inventory Technology for Small Landowners
Choosing the Right Accountant or Tax Preparer
The History of Forestry in Ireland
The American Oak Project Midleton Distillery Creates Rare Irish Whiskey to Promote Sustainable Forestry
Products & Services Marketplace
Index of Advertisers
Why not Surround Yourself with the Best?
The Consultant - 2018 - Intro
The Consultant - 2018 - cover1
The Consultant - 2018 - cover2
The Consultant - 2018 - 3
The Consultant - 2018 - 4
The Consultant - 2018 - 5
The Consultant - 2018 - From the Executive Director End Notes
The Consultant - 2018 - From the President ACF: Forestry, Fellowship and Value
The Consultant - 2018 - Sharing the Stories of the Trees: ACF Distinguished Forester Jim Able
The Consultant - 2018 - 9
The Consultant - 2018 - 10
The Consultant - 2018 - 11
The Consultant - 2018 - Maple Syrup: A Steigerwaldt Family Tradition
The Consultant - 2018 - 13
The Consultant - 2018 - 14
The Consultant - 2018 - 15
The Consultant - 2018 - The South Carolina Chapter and Forestry Students
The Consultant - 2018 - 17
The Consultant - 2018 - 18
The Consultant - 2018 - 19
The Consultant - 2018 - The Association of Consulting Foresters Celebrates 70 Years
The Consultant - 2018 - 21
The Consultant - 2018 - Carbon Offsets: A Viable Opportunity for Forest Landowners?
The Consultant - 2018 - 23
The Consultant - 2018 - 24
The Consultant - 2018 - 25
The Consultant - 2018 - 26
The Consultant - 2018 - 27
The Consultant - 2018 - Changes of Biblical Proportions
The Consultant - 2018 - 29
The Consultant - 2018 - 30
The Consultant - 2018 - 31
The Consultant - 2018 - 32
The Consultant - 2018 - 33
The Consultant - 2018 - Forests for Fish In Michigan, Foresters and Anglers are Learning from Each Other
The Consultant - 2018 - 35
The Consultant - 2018 - 36
The Consultant - 2018 - 37
The Consultant - 2018 - Case Study: Richland Township Woods, North Central Indiana
The Consultant - 2018 - 39
The Consultant - 2018 - Invasive Species 101
The Consultant - 2018 - 41
The Consultant - 2018 - 42
The Consultant - 2018 - 43
The Consultant - 2018 - Evaluating Forest Inventory Technology for Small Landowners
The Consultant - 2018 - 45
The Consultant - 2018 - 46
The Consultant - 2018 - Choosing the Right Accountant or Tax Preparer
The Consultant - 2018 - The History of Forestry in Ireland
The Consultant - 2018 - 49
The Consultant - 2018 - 50
The Consultant - 2018 - 51
The Consultant - 2018 - The American Oak Project Midleton Distillery Creates Rare Irish Whiskey to Promote Sustainable Forestry
The Consultant - 2018 - 53
The Consultant - 2018 - 54
The Consultant - 2018 - 55
The Consultant - 2018 - Products & Services Marketplace
The Consultant - 2018 - 57
The Consultant - 2018 - 58
The Consultant - 2018 - 59
The Consultant - 2018 - Index of Advertisers
The Consultant - 2018 - 61
The Consultant - 2018 - Why not Surround Yourself with the Best?
The Consultant - 2018 - cover3
The Consultant - 2018 - cover4
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert1
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert2
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert3
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert4
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert5
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert6
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