The Consultant - 2018 - 42

INVASIVE SPECIES 101

vines (which act as trellises for current
year's growth) and reach forest canopies.
Most invasive vines can be controlled
manually; that is, pull them up, disk
them, etc. But many will resprout if the
entire root is not removed. Fire usually
doesn't work as a control tactic, as some,
like Japanese climbing fern, will come
back stronger and in greater numbers
after a fire. Chemical control means are
usually the most effective. A 2-4 percent
glyphosate solution is usually sufficient
on foliage, provided there is good coverage. Cut-stem or basal bark treatments
of glyphosate or triclopyr are also effective. As with any invasive plants, treating younger plants is more effective than
treating older, more established plants.

PHOTO BY DAVID COYLE.

INVASIVE INSECTS

Japanese climbing fern near Andalusia, AL.

There are plenty of invasive insects in
forests as well, though in many cases control is much more difficult because they
move and/or may be inside the tree. The
hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) is
responsible for massive hemlock mortality
throughout the eastern U.S. This pest was
first found in eastern North America in
the mid-1900s and has a curious lifecycle.

While most insects are active during the
summer, adelgids are dormant. They
"wake up" in the fall and begin to feed,
and do so over winter. They also create
cotton-like material, giving them the
characteristic cottony appearance that
makes them so easy to see. They hatch
from eggs in the spring and have what is
called a "crawler" stage, which is the only
time in their life that they're able to move.
Once they find a suitable spot, they settle
down and never move again.
The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is arguably the worst invasive
pest this continent has ever experienced.
Originally from China, this insect was
first discovered in 2002 near Detroit,
MI. Since then it has spread throughout
eastern North America. What makes this
particular insect so bad is that it attacks
all species of ash tree, and unless the tree
is protected with chemicals, the attacks
result in tree death. The adult doesn't do
much damage - just a little nibbling on
the leaves - but the young (larvae) are
the ones that eat the phloem of the tree
and are responsible for tree death. The
emerald ash borer continues to spread to
new areas in the southeastern U.S.

HELP IS OUT THERE
Invasive species control and management is extremely important to forest health, and there are many programs in place to assist
forest managers. In the case of cogongrass, for instance, it is always recommended to alert the state forestry agency if you find
an infestation. In some states, like Georgia, the state forestry agency (Georgia Forestry Commission) will provide cogongrass
control and eradication for free - all you have to do is let them know it's there. Many state forest agencies and university forestry
and entomology units can provide help with emerald ash borer (EAB) management, including the deployment of parasitic wasps
that may help reduce beetle populations. Often, these agencies are looking for additional places to deploy the wasps, so if you
are managing a stand with an ash component or EAB already present, it's worth the time to get in touch with your local folks.
While not directly controlling invasive species, proper forest management in general can help reduce the likelihood of an invasive
species infestation. To that end, there are several programs that can help with management and reforestation efforts. The USDA
Forest Service - Forest Health Protection group (https://www.fs.fed.us/foresthealth/) is an excellent source of information and
expertise. There are many offices around the country. One of their most successful programs in the Southeast is the Southern
Pine Beetle Prevention Program, which provides cost-share opportunities for various forest management activities like thinning
and replanting. Check with your local state forestry agency to see if the land you manage is eligible.
A similar program with the USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service, the Environmental Quality Incentives Program
(EQIP), provides cost-share opportunities for conservation-related activities in forestry (https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/
nrcs/main/national/programs/financial/eqip/). About halfway down the page is a link to get to each state's local information.
The U.S. Land Grant System (https://nifa.usda.gov/land-grant-colleges-and-universities-partner-website-directory) has extension units in every state in the nation, and they provide a wealth of unbiased knowledge regarding natural resource management.
These folks are there to help whenever questions arise, so don't hesitate to give them a call.
If you manage forest land impacted by invasive species, you don't have to do it alone.
42

THE CONSULTANT

2018


https://www.fs.fed.us/foresthealth/ https://nifa.usda.gov/land-grant-colleges-and-universities-partner-website-directory

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of The Consultant - 2018

From the Executive Director End Notes
From the President ACF: Forestry, Fellowship and Value
Sharing the Stories of the Trees: ACF Distinguished Forester Jim Able
Maple Syrup: A Steigerwaldt Family Tradition
The South Carolina Chapter and Forestry Students
The Association of Consulting Foresters Celebrates 70 Years
Carbon Offsets: A Viable Opportunity for Forest Landowners?
Changes of Biblical Proportions
Forests for Fish In Michigan, Foresters and Anglers are Learning from Each Other
Case Study: Richland Township Woods, North Central Indiana
Invasive Species 101
Evaluating Forest Inventory Technology for Small Landowners
Choosing the Right Accountant or Tax Preparer
The History of Forestry in Ireland
The American Oak Project Midleton Distillery Creates Rare Irish Whiskey to Promote Sustainable Forestry
Products & Services Marketplace
Index of Advertisers
Why not Surround Yourself with the Best?
The Consultant - 2018 - Intro
The Consultant - 2018 - cover1
The Consultant - 2018 - cover2
The Consultant - 2018 - 3
The Consultant - 2018 - 4
The Consultant - 2018 - 5
The Consultant - 2018 - From the Executive Director End Notes
The Consultant - 2018 - From the President ACF: Forestry, Fellowship and Value
The Consultant - 2018 - Sharing the Stories of the Trees: ACF Distinguished Forester Jim Able
The Consultant - 2018 - 9
The Consultant - 2018 - 10
The Consultant - 2018 - 11
The Consultant - 2018 - Maple Syrup: A Steigerwaldt Family Tradition
The Consultant - 2018 - 13
The Consultant - 2018 - 14
The Consultant - 2018 - 15
The Consultant - 2018 - The South Carolina Chapter and Forestry Students
The Consultant - 2018 - 17
The Consultant - 2018 - 18
The Consultant - 2018 - 19
The Consultant - 2018 - The Association of Consulting Foresters Celebrates 70 Years
The Consultant - 2018 - 21
The Consultant - 2018 - Carbon Offsets: A Viable Opportunity for Forest Landowners?
The Consultant - 2018 - 23
The Consultant - 2018 - 24
The Consultant - 2018 - 25
The Consultant - 2018 - 26
The Consultant - 2018 - 27
The Consultant - 2018 - Changes of Biblical Proportions
The Consultant - 2018 - 29
The Consultant - 2018 - 30
The Consultant - 2018 - 31
The Consultant - 2018 - 32
The Consultant - 2018 - 33
The Consultant - 2018 - Forests for Fish In Michigan, Foresters and Anglers are Learning from Each Other
The Consultant - 2018 - 35
The Consultant - 2018 - 36
The Consultant - 2018 - 37
The Consultant - 2018 - Case Study: Richland Township Woods, North Central Indiana
The Consultant - 2018 - 39
The Consultant - 2018 - Invasive Species 101
The Consultant - 2018 - 41
The Consultant - 2018 - 42
The Consultant - 2018 - 43
The Consultant - 2018 - Evaluating Forest Inventory Technology for Small Landowners
The Consultant - 2018 - 45
The Consultant - 2018 - 46
The Consultant - 2018 - Choosing the Right Accountant or Tax Preparer
The Consultant - 2018 - The History of Forestry in Ireland
The Consultant - 2018 - 49
The Consultant - 2018 - 50
The Consultant - 2018 - 51
The Consultant - 2018 - The American Oak Project Midleton Distillery Creates Rare Irish Whiskey to Promote Sustainable Forestry
The Consultant - 2018 - 53
The Consultant - 2018 - 54
The Consultant - 2018 - 55
The Consultant - 2018 - Products & Services Marketplace
The Consultant - 2018 - 57
The Consultant - 2018 - 58
The Consultant - 2018 - 59
The Consultant - 2018 - Index of Advertisers
The Consultant - 2018 - 61
The Consultant - 2018 - Why not Surround Yourself with the Best?
The Consultant - 2018 - cover3
The Consultant - 2018 - cover4
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert1
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert2
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert3
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert4
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert5
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert6
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