The Consultant - 2018 - 49

THE HISTORY OF FORESTRY IN IRELAND

in Ireland
Efforts made to arrest the decline of
Irish forests from 1698 included a number of Acts of Parliament. However, they
made little impact, with the exception
of the Acts of 1784-1785, which allowed
some tenant farmers the right to harvest
trees that they had planted.
A visionary planting scheme promoted by the Dublin Society - now the
Royal Dublin Society (RDS) - initiated
an upsurge in planting beginning in
1741 which was to last for 140 years.
The scheme was part-funded by the
Irish Parliament in Dublin from 1761
and administered by the Society. It
halted the decline of Irish forests but
exploitation of woodlands continued
throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. Oak was particularly vulnerable
as it produced highly prized timber for
shipbuilding, construction, bark for tanning and charcoal for iron-ore smelting. However, ironworks were closed
early in the 18th century indicating a
scarcity of oak and other fuelwood. By
the beginning of the 18th century, it
is believed that Ireland became a net
importer of timber.
Land Acts and forest destruction
After 1881, successive Land Acts - in
particular the 1903 and 1909 Acts -
transformed land ownership in Ireland.
Within a generation, over five million hectares of land was transferred
from the landlords to 400,000 farming
families or former tenants. The consequences of this rapid transfer of land
were ominous for forestry.
THE CONSULTANT

2018

From 1881, many landlords who anticipated the radical change of ownership
began to fell their woods indiscriminately.
The uncertain political and economic climate contributed to a recession in agriculture, and the sale of woods provided ready
income for both the departing landlords
and the new incoming landowners. Less
than two generations removed from the
Great Famine, the former tenants intended
to farm their new holdings for food production. Also, they had an ingrained antipathy
to tree growing, which they associated
with luxury living and landlordism.
What remained of an indigenous wood
processing industry was destroyed. The
forester H.M. Fitzpatrick wrote: "With the
disappearance of the woods, the sawmill
in many a locality vanished too. With it
went the custom of using home-grown
timber and the lore connected with it."
First attempts at State afforestation
The Department of Agriculture and
Technical Instruction (DATI) was established in 1899 to improve the quality
of Irish farming, forestry and fisheries.
It had a difficult task in relation to forestry due to an ill-advised afforestation
scheme in west Galway. It commissioned
Professor John Nisbet to compile a report
on "plantations and waste-lands in the
south-east." Professor Nisbet advocated
State forestry rather than private forestry.
Avondale - a new beginning
In 1904 the State made its first major
investment in forestry by acquiring Avondale House and estate near

Rathdrum in Co. Wicklow, together with
3,000 acres of mountain land.
A forestry training centre was established in Avondale, the home of Charles
Stewart Parnell. Avondale once belonged
to Samuel Hayes, a pioneering forester
and author of A Practical Treatise on
Planting and the Management of Woods
and Coppices in 1794.
Following the acquisition of Avondale,
the State began to salvage some of the old
woodland estates. In an effort to curb the
exploitation of woodlands, tree felling
legislation was introduced in 1909.
Further demands were made on the
beleaguered forest resource during the
First World War, when forest cover was
reduced to 1%.
Planting continued at a modest pace from
the mid - 1920s up to 1950, at which stage
2% of the country was under forest. The first
major planting programmes were undertaken from 1948 when the first Inter-Party
Government, strongly influenced by Sean
MacBride, Minister for External Affairs,
adopted a long-term economic plan which
included an annual planting programme
of 10,000 hectares.

THE NEW FORESTS
Apart from reforesting a number of old
estates, planting for most of the 20th century was confined to poor sites, mainly
bogland and mountain. Most of the land
made available for forestry was incapable
of supporting relatively high nutrient
demanding native species such as ash
and oak, or naturalised species including
beech and sweet chestnut.
49



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of The Consultant - 2018

From the Executive Director End Notes
From the President ACF: Forestry, Fellowship and Value
Sharing the Stories of the Trees: ACF Distinguished Forester Jim Able
Maple Syrup: A Steigerwaldt Family Tradition
The South Carolina Chapter and Forestry Students
The Association of Consulting Foresters Celebrates 70 Years
Carbon Offsets: A Viable Opportunity for Forest Landowners?
Changes of Biblical Proportions
Forests for Fish In Michigan, Foresters and Anglers are Learning from Each Other
Case Study: Richland Township Woods, North Central Indiana
Invasive Species 101
Evaluating Forest Inventory Technology for Small Landowners
Choosing the Right Accountant or Tax Preparer
The History of Forestry in Ireland
The American Oak Project Midleton Distillery Creates Rare Irish Whiskey to Promote Sustainable Forestry
Products & Services Marketplace
Index of Advertisers
Why not Surround Yourself with the Best?
The Consultant - 2018 - Intro
The Consultant - 2018 - cover1
The Consultant - 2018 - cover2
The Consultant - 2018 - 3
The Consultant - 2018 - 4
The Consultant - 2018 - 5
The Consultant - 2018 - From the Executive Director End Notes
The Consultant - 2018 - From the President ACF: Forestry, Fellowship and Value
The Consultant - 2018 - Sharing the Stories of the Trees: ACF Distinguished Forester Jim Able
The Consultant - 2018 - 9
The Consultant - 2018 - 10
The Consultant - 2018 - 11
The Consultant - 2018 - Maple Syrup: A Steigerwaldt Family Tradition
The Consultant - 2018 - 13
The Consultant - 2018 - 14
The Consultant - 2018 - 15
The Consultant - 2018 - The South Carolina Chapter and Forestry Students
The Consultant - 2018 - 17
The Consultant - 2018 - 18
The Consultant - 2018 - 19
The Consultant - 2018 - The Association of Consulting Foresters Celebrates 70 Years
The Consultant - 2018 - 21
The Consultant - 2018 - Carbon Offsets: A Viable Opportunity for Forest Landowners?
The Consultant - 2018 - 23
The Consultant - 2018 - 24
The Consultant - 2018 - 25
The Consultant - 2018 - 26
The Consultant - 2018 - 27
The Consultant - 2018 - Changes of Biblical Proportions
The Consultant - 2018 - 29
The Consultant - 2018 - 30
The Consultant - 2018 - 31
The Consultant - 2018 - 32
The Consultant - 2018 - 33
The Consultant - 2018 - Forests for Fish In Michigan, Foresters and Anglers are Learning from Each Other
The Consultant - 2018 - 35
The Consultant - 2018 - 36
The Consultant - 2018 - 37
The Consultant - 2018 - Case Study: Richland Township Woods, North Central Indiana
The Consultant - 2018 - 39
The Consultant - 2018 - Invasive Species 101
The Consultant - 2018 - 41
The Consultant - 2018 - 42
The Consultant - 2018 - 43
The Consultant - 2018 - Evaluating Forest Inventory Technology for Small Landowners
The Consultant - 2018 - 45
The Consultant - 2018 - 46
The Consultant - 2018 - Choosing the Right Accountant or Tax Preparer
The Consultant - 2018 - The History of Forestry in Ireland
The Consultant - 2018 - 49
The Consultant - 2018 - 50
The Consultant - 2018 - 51
The Consultant - 2018 - The American Oak Project Midleton Distillery Creates Rare Irish Whiskey to Promote Sustainable Forestry
The Consultant - 2018 - 53
The Consultant - 2018 - 54
The Consultant - 2018 - 55
The Consultant - 2018 - Products & Services Marketplace
The Consultant - 2018 - 57
The Consultant - 2018 - 58
The Consultant - 2018 - 59
The Consultant - 2018 - Index of Advertisers
The Consultant - 2018 - 61
The Consultant - 2018 - Why not Surround Yourself with the Best?
The Consultant - 2018 - cover3
The Consultant - 2018 - cover4
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert1
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert2
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert3
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert4
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert5
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert6
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/AFFA/AFFA0017
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/AFFA/AFFA0016
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/AFFA/AFFA0015
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/AFFA/AFFA0014
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/AFFA/AFFA0013
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/AFFA0012
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/AFFA0006
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/AFFA0004
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/AFFA0005
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/AFFA0008
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/AFFA0007
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/AFFA0009
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/AFFA0010
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/AFFA0011
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com