The Consultant - 2018 - 51

THE HISTORY OF FORESTRY IN IRELAND

Instead, foresters looked outside
Ireland to broaden the species palette.
Scots pine and a number of European
species such as Norway spruce and
European larch were the preferred
choice in the early 20th century new forests. However, the botanist Augustine
Henry believed that the Irish climate,
with its high rainfall and relative mild
climate had closer similarities with the
Pacific North West Coast of America
than Continental Europe. He favoured
species such as Sitka spruce, Douglas fir
and lodgepole pine, natives of a stretch
of British Columbia, Canada, and the
states of Washington and Oregon
in the US.
The first Director of the Forest Service,
A.C. Forbes, put Henry's theories to the
test by establishing a series of experimental plots in Avondale from 1905. The plots
included native and naturalised species
alongside the exotics which Henry had
advocated. The performance of these
trees influenced future planting programmes. Within a few years, species
selection shifted from predominantly
European species to exotics from Western
North America.
Towards diversity
Sitka spruce is the core species in Irish
forestry and has performed extremely well
on poor sites. It is the central species in an
industry that has an annual turnover of
€650 million and which is responsible for
generating €1.6 billion for the economy.
Despite the rapid yield of Sitka spruce
and other conifers, especially on poor
land, there are now greater opportunities to plant more diverse species including native and naturalised broadleaves
as better quality land becomes available
for forestry.
The Government target is to plant
30% broadleaves and 20% diverse conifers. The annual target for broadleaved
planting has been achieved but there
is still a long way to go before Ireland
has a major native broadleaved resource.
Ireland's native woodland cover is a mere
80,000 hectares or a little over 1% of the
land area.
THE CONSULTANT

2018

Wood processing
Irish forests - north and south - produce
3.5 million m3 of wood annually. This is
processed by Irish sawmills and panelboard mills into the following range of
products:
* sawn material which includes construction, pallet, fencing and other material
such as garden/leisure products and
flooring.
* residues, which comprise woodchips,
sawdust and bark are converted
into  panelboard products such as
medium density fibre board (MDF),
oriented strand board (OSB) and chip
board.
In addition, woodchips and sawdust
are used to generate sustainable energy in
combined heat and power plants (CHPs).
Virtually all of the sawlog material
processed in Ireland is sourced from
sustainably managed forests and most
of this is processed by sawmills and panelboard miIls with the Forest Stewardship
Council (FSC) recognised chain of custody certification.
Annual production from Irish forests
will increase from 3.4 m3 to 4.9 million
m3 during the period 2005 to 2015 and
existing mills are capable of processing
all this material.
The main challenge facing the industry, which employs 16,000 people, is to
process and market the increased volumes which will be produced by private
growers, mainly farmers, of which there
are 14,000.
Forestry - wood and non-wood products
The value of forestry is no longer measured in narrow economic terms but in
its total contribution to society. While
wood is the main resource from the forest, public good or multi-purpose forestry
provides a range of 'non-wood' benefits
such as:
* Environment protection and
enhancement
* Recreation and tourism
* Seed and reproductive material
* Forest fruits, foliage and fungi
* Carbon sequestration
* Wood energy

NON-WOOD BENEFITS
Recreation and tourism
Increased access to all forests has resulted
in a high level of forest visits in Ireland.
Over 20 million visits are made annually to Irish forests north and south.
Activities such as walking, orienteering,
pony trekking and mountain biking are
commonplace, and the contribution of
forests in providing a recreational and cultural environment, particularly for urban
dwellers, is now an important function.
Seed and reproductive material
Irish forest nurseries now produce
70 million trees annually for the national
planting programme comprising 11,000 ha
afforestation (new planting) and 9,000 ha
reforestation (restocking of harvested forests). Most of the seed and reproductive
cuttings are sourced in Irish forests.
Forest fruits, foliage and fungi
Well managed forests provide a rich variety of non-wood products such as mushrooms, berries, foliage, Christmas trees
and cones.
Carbon sequestration
Forests contribute to lowering concentrations of CO2 by removing this greenhouse
gas from the atmosphere and converting
it to cellulose in wood and tissues. The
process, known as carbon sequestration,
has the potential to play an important
role in maintaining CO2 at internationally accepted levels. Developed countries including Ireland have committed
to reducing emissions of greenhouse
gases. Ireland will not be able to achieve
its commitment unless it adopts strategies
to reduce CO2 levels.
Wood energy
Wood for energy production can reduce
Ireland's reliance on imported fossil fuel.
A number of combined heat and power
plants have been established to convert
wood residue (wood chips, sawdust and
bark) and small logs to heat and electricity. This is an important development in
renewable energy generation as Ireland
imports 86% of all fuel for energy.
51



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of The Consultant - 2018

From the Executive Director End Notes
From the President ACF: Forestry, Fellowship and Value
Sharing the Stories of the Trees: ACF Distinguished Forester Jim Able
Maple Syrup: A Steigerwaldt Family Tradition
The South Carolina Chapter and Forestry Students
The Association of Consulting Foresters Celebrates 70 Years
Carbon Offsets: A Viable Opportunity for Forest Landowners?
Changes of Biblical Proportions
Forests for Fish In Michigan, Foresters and Anglers are Learning from Each Other
Case Study: Richland Township Woods, North Central Indiana
Invasive Species 101
Evaluating Forest Inventory Technology for Small Landowners
Choosing the Right Accountant or Tax Preparer
The History of Forestry in Ireland
The American Oak Project Midleton Distillery Creates Rare Irish Whiskey to Promote Sustainable Forestry
Products & Services Marketplace
Index of Advertisers
Why not Surround Yourself with the Best?
The Consultant - 2018 - Intro
The Consultant - 2018 - cover1
The Consultant - 2018 - cover2
The Consultant - 2018 - 3
The Consultant - 2018 - 4
The Consultant - 2018 - 5
The Consultant - 2018 - From the Executive Director End Notes
The Consultant - 2018 - From the President ACF: Forestry, Fellowship and Value
The Consultant - 2018 - Sharing the Stories of the Trees: ACF Distinguished Forester Jim Able
The Consultant - 2018 - 9
The Consultant - 2018 - 10
The Consultant - 2018 - 11
The Consultant - 2018 - Maple Syrup: A Steigerwaldt Family Tradition
The Consultant - 2018 - 13
The Consultant - 2018 - 14
The Consultant - 2018 - 15
The Consultant - 2018 - The South Carolina Chapter and Forestry Students
The Consultant - 2018 - 17
The Consultant - 2018 - 18
The Consultant - 2018 - 19
The Consultant - 2018 - The Association of Consulting Foresters Celebrates 70 Years
The Consultant - 2018 - 21
The Consultant - 2018 - Carbon Offsets: A Viable Opportunity for Forest Landowners?
The Consultant - 2018 - 23
The Consultant - 2018 - 24
The Consultant - 2018 - 25
The Consultant - 2018 - 26
The Consultant - 2018 - 27
The Consultant - 2018 - Changes of Biblical Proportions
The Consultant - 2018 - 29
The Consultant - 2018 - 30
The Consultant - 2018 - 31
The Consultant - 2018 - 32
The Consultant - 2018 - 33
The Consultant - 2018 - Forests for Fish In Michigan, Foresters and Anglers are Learning from Each Other
The Consultant - 2018 - 35
The Consultant - 2018 - 36
The Consultant - 2018 - 37
The Consultant - 2018 - Case Study: Richland Township Woods, North Central Indiana
The Consultant - 2018 - 39
The Consultant - 2018 - Invasive Species 101
The Consultant - 2018 - 41
The Consultant - 2018 - 42
The Consultant - 2018 - 43
The Consultant - 2018 - Evaluating Forest Inventory Technology for Small Landowners
The Consultant - 2018 - 45
The Consultant - 2018 - 46
The Consultant - 2018 - Choosing the Right Accountant or Tax Preparer
The Consultant - 2018 - The History of Forestry in Ireland
The Consultant - 2018 - 49
The Consultant - 2018 - 50
The Consultant - 2018 - 51
The Consultant - 2018 - The American Oak Project Midleton Distillery Creates Rare Irish Whiskey to Promote Sustainable Forestry
The Consultant - 2018 - 53
The Consultant - 2018 - 54
The Consultant - 2018 - 55
The Consultant - 2018 - Products & Services Marketplace
The Consultant - 2018 - 57
The Consultant - 2018 - 58
The Consultant - 2018 - 59
The Consultant - 2018 - Index of Advertisers
The Consultant - 2018 - 61
The Consultant - 2018 - Why not Surround Yourself with the Best?
The Consultant - 2018 - cover3
The Consultant - 2018 - cover4
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert1
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert2
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert3
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert4
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert5
The Consultant - 2018 - outsert6
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