Quality Progress - February 2018 - 24

F E AT U R E

SIX SIGMA

FIGURE 1

Four domains in the design for Six Sigma process
1. Customer
domain

2. Functional
domain

3. Physical
domain

4. Process
domain

Customer
attributes

Functional
requirements

Design
parameters

Process
variables

A design case

A customer asks the design team of an organization to design a control system for the customer's
manufacturing process. The process has a storage tank for liquid chemical A and another tank for
liquid chemical B. Each tank has a pump that moves the chemicals to a reactor, where chemical A
reacts with chemical B to make a product (Figure 2).
The customer wants the control system to precisely control the total feeding speed of chemicals
A and B, and to precisely control the chemical composition of the feeding stock. These needs are
CAs.
After studying the CAs, the design team defines two FRs:
1. Control the total flow rate of chemicals A and B within 100 to 200 liters/minute (FR1).
2. Control the ratio of chemical A to chemical B within 1.0 to 2.0 (FR2).
The design team is confident that these two FRs will satisfy the two CAs. To satisfy the FRs, the
design team develops the specifications (DPs) for the mechanical and electrical components of
the control system, such as control valves, the inline flow meter, the composition analyzer and the
electronic control loops. To satisfy the specific DPs, the design team designs PVs for producing the
mechanical and electronic components of the control system.

Axiomatic design

Axiomatic design is a system design method that uses matrix methods to systematically analyze
and improve the transformation of FRs into DPs.
An axiom is a premise that is taken to be true without proof-a starting point for further analysis
and reasoning. The two axioms in axiomatic design are the independence axiom (axiom one) and
the information axiom (axiom two).
For a design to be conceptually robust, its concept must satisfy axioms one and two, as well as
many corollaries. Axiom one requires a design concept to maintain the independence of the FRs,
while axiom two requires a design concept to minimize its information content.
Per axiom one, if the FRs of a design concept have a 1:1 relationship with the DPs, a specific DP
can be adjusted to satisfy its corresponding FR without affecting the other FRs.
Per axiom two, if the information content of a design concept is minimized, the design concept
will have huge technological and cost advantages compared to a design concept with high information content. Design information content is a measure of the control system's complexity-the
function of the number of variables and their inherent variations. Therefore, a design concept with
minimum information content demonstrates organized simplicity, while a design concept with high
information content represents disorganized complexity.

24 QP

February 2018 ❘ qualityprogress.com


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Quality Progress - February 2018

Seen and Heard
Expert Answers
Progress Report
Mr. Pareto Head
Career Coach
Office Efficiency
The Crown Jewels of Design
Open Lines
Less Is More
ASQ 2018 Six Sigma Resource Guide
Standard Issues
Six Sigma Solutions
Statistics Spotlight
Marketplace
Footnotes
Try This Today
Quality Progress - February 2018 - intro
Quality Progress - February 2018 - cover1
Quality Progress - February 2018 - cover2
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 1
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 2
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 3
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 4
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 5
Quality Progress - February 2018 - Seen and Heard
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 7
Quality Progress - February 2018 - Expert Answers
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 9
Quality Progress - February 2018 - Progress Report
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 11
Quality Progress - February 2018 - Mr. Pareto Head
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 13
Quality Progress - February 2018 - Career Coach
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 15
Quality Progress - February 2018 - Office Efficiency
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 17
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 18
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 19
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 20
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 21
Quality Progress - February 2018 - The Crown Jewels of Design
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 23
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 24
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 25
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 26
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 27
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 28
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 29
Quality Progress - February 2018 - Open Lines
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 31
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 32
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 33
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 34
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 35
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 36
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 37
Quality Progress - February 2018 - Less Is More
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 39
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 40
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 41
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 42
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 43
Quality Progress - February 2018 - ASQ 2018 Six Sigma Resource Guide
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 45
Quality Progress - February 2018 - Standard Issues
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 47
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 48
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 49
Quality Progress - February 2018 - Six Sigma Solutions
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 51
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 52
Quality Progress - February 2018 - Statistics Spotlight
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 54
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 55
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 56
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 57
Quality Progress - February 2018 - Marketplace
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 59
Quality Progress - February 2018 - Footnotes
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 61
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 62
Quality Progress - February 2018 - 63
Quality Progress - February 2018 - Try This Today
Quality Progress - February 2018 - cover3
Quality Progress - February 2018 - cover4
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