Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 13

Federal regulation of MAR does not deal with projects
that passively recharge aquifers; however, many states have
groundwater antidegradation laws that may require environmental
impact studies, modeling requirements, testing phases, etc.
On a local level, many states have also enacted legislature that
allows for the creation of groundwater conservation districts. Each
district's management authority varies, but generally, conservation
districts attempt to assess aquifer properties to determine or
recommend groundwater withdrawal rates, issue permits and
allocate resources to restrain groundwater use.

The big picture
As described above, surface water and groundwater policy
are segregated within the federal water policy regulatory scheme,
although this has given states the ability to formulate laws on state
and local levels, it complicates MAR potential on a national scale.
For example, principal aquifers do not abide by state boundaries.
By overlaying state boundaries on a principal aquifers map (Figure
4), and knowing each state water resource regulation varies,
nationwide MAR potential and management is not directly based
on aquifer properties but on the overlying political framework.

A closer look
On a smaller scale, in Kansas a MAR project within the Equus
Beds of the High Plains Aquifer is regulated by two state agencies,
Kansas Division of Water Resources and the Kansas Department of
Health and Environment. It is also within the oversight of the state's
Groundwater Management District 2, which is responsible for wateruse administration, planning and providing information in data gaps
and regulatory needs. Surface water and groundwater are regulated
under the prior appropriation doctrine. Therefore, the state requires a
dual permitting scheme to operate an ASR project. A water permit is
required for a surface water source and a secondary permit allows for
extraction of the stored water.
However, farther south, within the state of Texas, the HPA is
divided among 14 groundwater conservation districts (Figure 6).
Although the state's surface water follows the prior appropriation
doctrine, the groundwater doctrine falls under absolute ownership.
While this can complicate investment potential if piracy of stored
water is possible, the state may issue temporary permits that allow for
the appropriation and recovery of stored water.

Figure 4: Principal aquifers in the conterminous United States
underlying more than one state.

A closer look at spatial regulations may have on MAR potential
in the United States can be seen in the High Plains Aquifer (HPA;
Figure 5). Federally, it is regulated by three USEPA regional offices,
and the aquifer underlies eight states. Therefore, it is subject to
the prior appropriation doctrine in six states, and a mixed prior
appropriation and riparian doctrine in two. Furthermore, it is
subjected to three groundwater allocation doctrines, including six
prior appropriation doctrines, one correlative rights doctrine and
one absolute ownership doctrine. Therefore, projects spanning
beyond state boundaries will require multi-state collaboration
among local and state agencies.

Figure 5: Location of the High Plains Aquifer.

Figure 6: High Plains Aquifer and Texas Groundwater Conservation Districts.

Lack of a national water policy requires extensive collaboration
on federal, state and local levels, especially when considering the
development of MAR schemes. Nationwide expansion of MAR varies
greatly among interstate aquifers, and while it allows for the ease of
development in one location, it might constrain its use at another,
irrespective of hydrologic properties. Therefore, consideration of
future MAR policies should include a comprehensive and integrated
approach that attempts to dissolve political boundaries and
encourages coherent development. ■
Maria T. Gibson, co-editor of this issue, is a graduate research assistant
in the College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon
State University, where she is pursuing her PhD in Water Resources
Science studying managed aquifer recharge. She has a BS in Geology
from the University of Oregon and a certificate in Water Conflict
Management and Transformation from Oregon State University.
Maria is an active outdoor enthusiast, enjoying hiking, biking,
mountaineering, snowboarding, triathlons, and other such pursuits.
Contact: gibsonma@geo.oregonstate.edu.
Volume 19 * Number 5 www.awra.org * 13


http://www.awra.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017

President’s Message
Growing Up…with Managed Aquifer Recharge
Aquifer Storage and Recovery as Means to
The Regulatory Environment of Managed
The ASCE-EWRI Standard Guidelines
Managed Aquifer Recharge:
Managed Aquifer Recharge: A Global Perspective
What’s Up with Water? Sisyphus, Heraclitus and WOTUS
The New Economics of Water: Reducing CO2 Emissions in the Bay Delta Could Reverse Erosion
Domestic Well Aquifer Storage and Recovery Using Seasonal Springs
Philosophy and Ethics: The Rio Grande and the Ganges Rivers: How Human ‘Success’ is Choking the Life out of Two Great River-Spirits
ASR: Aquifer Storage Rescues a Small Water Supply District
Putting Aquifers to Work: MAR Applications in Nutrient Removal
Summer Conference Recap
Harvesting Glacial Meltwater with Managed Aquifer Recharge
AWRA State Section and Student Chapter News
In Memoriam: Peter E. Black
Herbert Scholarship Award Recipients for 2017-2018 Announced
August JAWRA Highlights
2017-2018 Editorial Calendar
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - intro
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - cover1
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - cover2
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 3
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 4
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - President’s Message
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - Growing Up…with Managed Aquifer Recharge
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 7
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - Aquifer Storage and Recovery as Means to
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 9
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 10
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - The Regulatory Environment of Managed
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 12
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 13
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - The ASCE-EWRI Standard Guidelines
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 15
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 16
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - Managed Aquifer Recharge:
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 18
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 19
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - Managed Aquifer Recharge: A Global Perspective
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 21
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 22
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 23
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 24
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 25
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 26
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 27
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 28
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 29
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - What’s Up with Water? Sisyphus, Heraclitus and WOTUS
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 31
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - The New Economics of Water: Reducing CO2 Emissions in the Bay Delta Could Reverse Erosion
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - Philosophy and Ethics: The Rio Grande and the Ganges Rivers: How Human ‘Success’ is Choking the Life out of Two Great River-Spirits
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - ASR: Aquifer Storage Rescues a Small Water Supply District
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 35
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - Summer Conference Recap
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 37
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - AWRA State Section and Student Chapter News
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - In Memoriam: Peter E. Black
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - Herbert Scholarship Award Recipients for 2017-2018 Announced
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 41
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - 2017-2018 Editorial Calendar
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - cover3
Water Resources - IMPACT - September 2017 - cover4
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