FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - 19

the tree. Oleoresin (or gum) is a mixture of terpene compounds that repel
or immobilize pests, promote tree healing and naturally builds-up over time
in the heartwood of mature pines. This
makes resin an excellent preservative.
Tar captured from heating pine stumps
was used to seal and preserve ropes,
wooden boats, and other structures -
thus the term "naval stores." Tar collection was widespread in the Carolinas
(thus the nickname "tar heels"), but the
supply of resinous, older trees ("lighter
wood") began to run out; gum collected
from live trees by chopping boxes, or
cavities in the base of the tree, caused
trees to die.
Fortunately methods were developed to harvest the gum by wounding the tree with "streaks" and using
metal gutters channeling the exuding
resin into a cup, beginning with the clay
pot or Herty cup. This "cat-facing" did
not kill the tree, and allowed sustainable production. More than 40 different cup designs followed, with many on
display at the site.
Ten thousand "faces" on trees constituted a crop. In dense, pine stands
one chipper and a dipper worked a crop
of trees every week during the warm
season when gum was flowing. Gum
was dipped or scraped into buckets
and transferred to barrels in a wagon for
delivery to the turpentine fire still near
the forest. For a season, it took about
three crops of faces to supply a 10-barrel still like the still at Austin Cary Forest.
During production, the still required
5-7 barrels of gum and a complementary amount of water for each run -
known as a "charge." Upon heating,
the turpentine and water vapors were
condensed and collected in a barrel and
the turpentine and water separated.
Rosin remaining in the kettle was then
discharged into a large vat and dipped
into barrels. A charge typically yielded
about 20 percent turpentine and 80
percent rosin. In the early years, turpentine and rosin were mainly used as

ingredients in medicines, paints, solvents and other products.
After World War II, competition
from petroleum-based chemicals,
as well as rising labor costs, transformed the pine chemicals industry.
Today most pine resin is collected
as a by-product of the sulfate process in making paper. These products
are refined and used in many common consumer products - adhesives,
emulsifiers, cleaning agents, coatings,
inks, sealants, fragrances, flavorings
and other products. Some recognizable consumer products using pine
chemicals include Post-It notes, PineSol, Bounce, Wrigley chewing gums,
Gatorade and Bengay.
Ongoing research is improving the quantity and quality of pine
resin through advancements in tree
genetics and new collection methods. Research advances, continued
demand for pine chemicals and the
abundance of slash pine in the region
is generating renewed interest in pine
tree tapping.
In less than a year, the Skinner
Family Turpentine Education Site has
attracted more than 500 visitors, and
the site remains a work in progress. We
are presently seeking funds to add a
Cooper's shed (barrel-making workshop), haul wagon stall, and additional
display space for artifacts, equipment
and educational exhibits.
The goal is to create an educational
resource that is authentic, engaging and
interactive. An anonymous donor has
committed a $15,000 matching gift to
help raise the funds needed for these
new and critically important additions.
You can help develop and enhance the
site with your gift.
To make a gift online visit
tinyurl.com/SFRCturp or contact Caylin
Hilton with UF/IFAS Advancement at
cnewbern@ufl.edu or (352) 392-5432.
To arrange a program or schedule a tour, contact Wayne Smith at
whsmith@ufl.edu or (352) 475-2439. *
Florida Forests 19 Spring/Summer 2018

"TAR CAPTURED
FROM HEATING PINE
STUMPS WAS USED TO
SEAL AND PRESERVE
ROPES, WOODEN
BOATS, AND OTHER
STRUCTURES - THUS
THE TERM 'NAVAL
STORES.'"

Guided tour group views pine resin harvest
and collection methods at the Turpentine
Education Site.

The modern bore-hole method of gum
collection is demonstrated on the
educational path at the Skinner Family
Turpentine Education Site.


http://www.tinyurl.com/SFRCturp

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018

President’s Message
Adam Putnam: Putting Florida First
2018 Legislative Wrap-Up
On the Ballot: Constitutional Amendments
Harold Mikell Inducted Into Florida Agricultural Hall of Fame
Teaching About Turpentine at Austin Cary Forest
Florida Forest Service Bmp Survey
Operation Outdoor Freedom
Blazing, Saddled
Snapshots
Products & Services Marketplace
Index of ads/advertisers.com
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - Intro
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - cover1
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - cover2
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - 3
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - 4
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - 5
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - President’s Message
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - 7
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - Adam Putnam: Putting Florida First
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - 9
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - 2018 Legislative Wrap-Up
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - 11
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - 12
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - 13
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - On the Ballot: Constitutional Amendments
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - 15
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - Harold Mikell Inducted Into Florida Agricultural Hall of Fame
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - 17
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - Teaching About Turpentine at Austin Cary Forest
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - 19
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - Florida Forest Service Bmp Survey
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - 21
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - Operation Outdoor Freedom
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - Blazing, Saddled
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - 24
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - 25
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - Snapshots
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - 27
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - Products & Services Marketplace
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - 29
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - Index of ads/advertisers.com
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - cover3
FLORIDAForests - Spring/Summer 2018 - cover4
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