IIE Network - Spring 2014 - (Page 35)

FEATURE: THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION The Translocal Urban Nexus in International Education: Trinity College in China and Southeast Asia By Xiangming Chen GLOBALIZATION IS RESHAPING higher education in the United States, prompting more universities and colleges to internationalize by sending more students to study abroad, recruiting more overseas students, and so forth. In reality this isn't new-more of a scaling-up process than qualitative change. There are however two significant trends in globalization that have begun to redirect a large segment of the path-and the future-of international education in the United States. China, Cities, and Globalization The first is the rise of China as a powerful driver of globalization. According to Chinese government statistics, China's share of global trade rose from 4.7 percent in 2002 to 10.2 percent in 2011, with its export share of the global total growing from 5 percent to 10.4 percent. This rapid ascent has moved China from fourth to first on the list of top trading nations. The second trend is the acceleration of urbanization. One half of the world's population lives in cities today. While New York City and London dominate as toptier financial hubs and innovation centers, a growing number of secondary cities (Chen and Kanna 2012)-especially those in China and India, such as Chongqing and Bangalore- have become more important players in the global economy. Cities become strategic sites where globalization "touches down" and fuses with local conditions to induce social change. These two trends are reflected in the broader shift of international higher education in the United States. While China was not a major study destination more than a decade ago, it has now become the fifth most popular destination for American students, behind Britain, Italy, Spain, and France. According to the Institute of International Education, there were fewer than 100,000 Chinese students in the United States six years ago-smaller than the number of Indian students then- but the number of Chinese students soared to almost 240,000 by 2013, accounting for 28.6 percent of all international students. With only three students from China in 2007, Cities become strategic sites where globalization "touches down" and fuses with local conditions to induce social change. Trinity College in Connecticut has more than 30 of them today. Even as top American research universities establish branch campuses in international cities like Abu Dhabi (New York University) and Singapore (Yale), they (Chicago, Stanford) have placed most of their campuses in Beijing and Shanghai. New York University opened a new liberal arts college in Shanghai in fall 2013. These recent developments are facilitating the continued globalization of higher education. Yet much of the programming at these new campuses and centers is fairly conventional: granting new degrees to local and non-local students and hosting visiting students and faculty from the home institutions. On the other hand, if the Global Network University model being pursued by NYU can fully link the knowledge assets of multiple local sites1, it will break new ground in international education. In the meantime, American institutions of higher education, large universities or small colleges, continue to search for ways to fully couple and integrate learning both globally and locally. One promising model is to develop horizontal academic ties between urban locations that can generate new parallel and sequential learning opportunities. Translocal Comparative Learning in Cities Trinity College has extended its local urban tradition and learning opportunities to China and Southeast Asia, where it has established a strong presence and footprint in multiple urban locales2. These activities exemplify a translocal model in which higher education in the United States capitalizes on Trinity program visiting Pratt & Whitney in East Hartford; Trinity also visited the aerospace company's engine service facility in Shanghai, China. rising global cities abroad to develop new learning opportunities. Chinese cities are becoming interesting laboratories for examining the local impacts of globalization. These cities have grown from being export-oriented manufacture platforms at the expense of post-industrial American cities like Detroit, which have become "de-globalized" or lost their global economic prominence (Ryan 2012). The rise of Chinese cities and decline of some American cities, viewed through a translocal urban lens, can shed light on the evolving relationship between globalization and international higher education. Seizing the opportunity to study globalization from an urban perspective, Trinity College opened the Center for Urban and Global Studies in 2007. The college began its programming design with Trinity's home city of Hartford. Situated by the Connecticut River and with a population of about 120,000, Hartford's industrialization began very early. The city became one of the most prosperous American cities in the late 19th century but lost its manufacturing base and a peak population of more than 170,000 from around 1960 on. Located at the upper reach and the mouth of the Yangtze River, Chongqing and Shanghai have populations more than 30 and 20 million people respectively, and have 35

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IIE Network - Spring 2014

A Message from Allan E. Goodman
2014 IIE Andrew Heiskell Awards for Innovation in International Education
An Interview with Torbjørn Røe Isaksen, Minister of Education and Research, Government of Norway
Introduction to the Globalization of International Education
Internationalization as Acquisitions, Mergers, and Synergy: A Value-Based Framework of Internationalization
Globalized Internationalization: Implications for Policy and Practice
Advocating the Value of Experiential Learning in the Age of Globalization
The Translocal Urban Nexus in International Education: Trinity College in China and Southeast Asia
Mission Apt: Evolving Strategies for Global Student Recruitment
Global Research Networks: Experiments in Internationalization
Two Models of Global Learning
Advertisers Index
Final Thought: Fostering Global Research Capacity Through Multilateral Partnerships: The Global Innovation Initiative

IIE Network - Spring 2014