Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 20


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stakeholder input. In Texas, regulatory
guidelines for each potable reuse project
are handled on a case-by-case basis.
The first operating DPR project in Texas
was in Big Spring, which obtained
approval during a serious drought.
At this time, California has the most
developed regulatory structure for IPR.
It provides detailed criteria for the type
of treatment processes, contaminants
to test for and time treated water must
remain underground. A minimum of
three separate treatment processes
are required. The state is working
on a framework for DPR to be based
on the results of on-going research
and discussions.
In potable reuse systems nationwide,
special attention is given to contaminants
of emerging concern. Although information
is limited about the risks to human health,
operational criteria for potable reuse
systems include identifying compounds of
concern in the source water, monitoring
for these compounds and reducing them
to near undetectable levels in the finished
product. By-products of treatment can be
created during the disinfection process,
making additional treatment necessary.
For example, Scottsdale added ozone
before RO to prevent formation of NDMA,
a suspected carcinogen that can be a
by-product of disinfection. Although
chemical contaminants are a cause for
concern, removal criteria for potable reuse
focus strongly on microbial pathogens,
which are the most immediate threats to
human health.
Because of the special care taken to
ensure pure water to customers, potable
reuse tends to be more expensive than
traditional drinking water treatment.
In particular, reverse osmosis, with its
high energy demand and brine waste
stream, increases the cost of potable
reuse treatment. Where environmental
buffers are located at a distance from the
treatment plant, infrastructure necessary
for water transport can add substantially
to the cost of IPR. In DPR, the lack of
an environmental buffer may dictate
the use of additional safety measures,
such as real-time monitoring, that can be
costly as well. The expense of training
operations specialists to ensure reliability
of the advanced treatment systems adds
additional cost.

Finally, for potable reuse to become a
part of the water manager's portfolio, public
acceptance is a key hurdle to be overcome.
It is possible to educate the public to think
beyond the well-acknowledged "yuck"
factor with early, consistent and transparent
interactions. Potable reuse is not the answer
for all communities, but where multiple
barriers are in place between the wastewater
and the drinking water, potable reuse has
been accepted, especially where water
shortage is a threat. Customer support for
investments in potable reuse is likely to
increase as communities in Arizona and
elsewhere come to grips with their water
supply challenges.
For more on this topic, see the 2016
Arroyo, "Potable Reuse of Water," by
Nejlah Hummer and Susanna Eden,
available at https://wrrc.arizona.edu/
publications/arroyo-newsletter/arroyo-2016potable-reuse-water. ●
This article was reprinted with the permission
of the American Water Resources
Association, and first appeared in the July
2016 issue of Water Resources Impact.
References
Brown, M.P. 2007, Case Study Scottsdale,
Arizona, Scottsdale Water Resources Division,
Final 5-25-07.
California Department of Public Health,
Regulations Related to Recycled Water June
18, 2014 (Revisions effective on 6/18/14) Title
17 and 22 California Code of Regulations
Committee on the Assessment of Water
Reuse as an Approach to Meeting Future
Water Supply Needs; Water Science and
Technology Board; Division on Earth and Life
Studies; National Research Council, 2012,
Understanding Water Reuse: Potential for
Expanding the Nation's Water Supply Through
Reuse of Municipal Wastewater, National
Academies Press
Middel, A., Quay, R. and White, D.D., 2013,
Water Reuse in Central Arizona, Decision
Center for a Desert City, Arizona State
University
Texas Water Development Board, Final Report:
Direct Potable Reuse Resource Document,
April 2015, TWDB Contract No. 1248321508,
Alan Plummer Associates, Inc.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012
Guidelines for Water Reuse, EPA/600/R-12/618
WateReuse Research Foundation, Potable
Reuse: State of the Science Report and
Equivalency Criteria for Treatment Trains,
WateReuse


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016

The Latest Drinking Water Innovations
Potable Reuse of Water: A View from Arizona
Getting the Public on Board with Your Potable Water Reuse Plan
Recapturing Revenue from Water Loss
Water Depletion and the Customer
Boardroom Courtesy
From the President
Finance: Audit Requirements
Technology: The New System that Uses Sound to Alleviate Water Shortage
Emergency Management: Creating a Drought Response Plan
A Day in the Life of a Circuit Rider
Regulatory Update
Throwing My Loop: An Old Familiar Tune
Index to Advertisers/ Advertisers.com
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - cover1
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - cover2
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 3
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 4
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 5
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 6
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 7
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 8
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 9
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 10
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - From the President
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - The Latest Drinking Water Innovations
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 13
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 14
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 15
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 16
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 17
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Potable Reuse of Water: A View from Arizona
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 19
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 20
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 21
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Getting the Public on Board with Your Potable Water Reuse Plan
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 23
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 24
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 25
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Recapturing Revenue from Water Loss
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 27
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 28
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 29
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 30
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Finance: Audit Requirements
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 32
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 33
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 34
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Technology: The New System that Uses Sound to Alleviate Water Shortage
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 36
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Emergency Management: Creating a Drought Response Plan
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 38
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 39
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - A Day in the Life of a Circuit Rider
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 41
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 42
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Water Depletion and the Customer
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 44
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Boardroom Courtesy
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 46
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 47
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Regulatory Update
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 49
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 50
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Throwing My Loop: An Old Familiar Tune
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 52
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 53
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Index to Advertisers/ Advertisers.com
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 55
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 56
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 57
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 58
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - cover3
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - cover4
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