Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 51

Hard or Soft

Fig. 2: FPInnovations LignoForce 100 kg/day demonstration plant, Thunder Bay, 2011.

like to grow. For example, it has already implemented three Precipitator Dust Purification
(PDP) systems in Brazil and Chile.
The LignoForce demonstration plant was
located on the site of a swing mill (Resolute
Forest Products, Thunder Bay, ON) in order to
have access to both softwood and hardwood
black liquor (see sidebar.) The plant (see Fig. 2)
has also processed some eucalyptus black liquor
imported from other parts of the world.
The demonstration plant was built close to
the recovery island and has a capacity of 100 kg/
day, working about 12 hours daily. The equipment includes:
* Black liquor tanks; liquor at a concentration
of 30 to 40 percent is fed to the lignin plant
from the mill's evaporators.
* A black liquor filter.
* A reactor for black liquor oxidation.
* A reactor for black liquor acidification (the
team tested different reactor designs).
* A coagulator that allows lignin particles
to grow.
* A filter press: this accounts for about 40
percent of the capital cost in industrial-size
plants. It dewaters the cake and washes it
with sulphuric acid and water.
* Although one was not installed at Thunder
Bay or the commercial-scale plant in Hinton,

AB, a ring dryer may be used. Paleologou
notes a Finnish installation has one.
Speaking about the reactor designs,
Paleologou says time was an important factor.
"The ones we chose took only a few minutes
to complete the oxidation and precipitation
steps. We were also looking at efficiencies and
always looking at having as continuous a process as possible."
The black liquor is oxidized up front so there
is no odor at subsequent stages of the process.
This also means that the lignin at the filter press
does not smell, even before being washed with
sulphuric acid and water. "So you can take it as
is and add it to alkaline processes (e.g., reactor
for the manufacture of phenol formaldehyde
resins)," Paleologou says. "You do not need to
take it to the acid form and add sodium hydroxide to bring the pH level up again."
The first products came out of the demonstration plant in 2011. "It did not take long to
install and debug," Paleologou adds. "NORAM,
as well as our team in Thunder Bay, did a
great job."
Once the product was ready, samples were
sent to more than 60 companies, research
organizations, and universities. Potential
applications being investigated include adhesives/binders, thermoplastics/composites,

Comparing black liquors from hardwood and softwood pulping processes,
Paleologou says hardwood lignin has
a more linear and open structure.
Softwood lignin works better in phenolic resins, while hardwood lignin is
better for polyurethane foams.
Softwood lignin, no matter the
wood species, tends to be similar.
"We have conducted trials with black
liquor from at least 10 different softwood mills and the lignin is all very
similar," Paleologou says. "Hardwood
lignin is quite different from softwood
lignin, thereby providing the opportunity to tailor the right lignin to the
right application.
"Fortunately, we have today, at our
disposal, very advanced analytical tools
that we did not have 50 years ago. We
can use these tools to quite accurately
identify important structural and
chemical features of lignin that might
be of use in particular applications."
dispersants/flocculants, carbon fiber, chemicals, activated carbon, and polyurethane foams
(to replace polyol). However, the market sector
targeted first was wood adhesives, where lignin
could replace a significant portion of the phenol
formaldehyde (PF) resins in wood products at
the mill site or, alternatively, the phenol in the
Paper360º MARCH/APRIL 2018

51



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Paper360 - March/April 2018

Setpoint
Over the Wire
The Importance of Safety Training
Data & Decision Making
RISI European CEO of the Year: DS Smith’s Miles Roberts
Buckman’s Junai Maharaj on ‘The Art of the Possible’
Fapajal Tissue: Old, New & Customer-Centric
Progroup Turns 25
PIMA, Paper360° Co-Host Executive Panel
Creating a Lignin Culture
Benefits of Drive-Through Design
Sustainability as Business Leverage
CIPTE Show Highlights Innovation and Sustainability
TAPPI Journal Summaries
Leadership in Maintenance: Where Do We Start?
As a New Reliability Engineer, Are you Confused About Your Role?
R&M Tips
Paper and Board Have Key Roles in the Future of Packaging
Global Paper and Paperboard Demand Growing Despite Declines in Graphic Paper
PPI Awards Showcase Industry Excellence
TAPPI News
ASPI News
Index of Advertisers
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - intro
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - ebelly1
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - ebelly2
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - cover1
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - cover2
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 3
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 4
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 5
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - Setpoint
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 7
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 8
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - Over the Wire
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 10
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 11
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - The Importance of Safety Training
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 13
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - Data & Decision Making
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 15
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 16
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 17
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 18
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 19
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 20
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 21
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 22
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 23
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 24
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 25
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 26
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 27
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 28
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 29
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 30
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 31
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - RISI European CEO of the Year: DS Smith’s Miles Roberts
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 33
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 34
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 35
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - Buckman’s Junai Maharaj on ‘The Art of the Possible’
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 37
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 38
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 39
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - Fapajal Tissue: Old, New & Customer-Centric
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 41
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 42
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 43
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - Progroup Turns 25
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 45
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 46
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 47
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - PIMA, Paper360° Co-Host Executive Panel
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 49
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - Creating a Lignin Culture
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 51
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 52
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 53
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - Benefits of Drive-Through Design
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 55
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - Sustainability as Business Leverage
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 57
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - CIPTE Show Highlights Innovation and Sustainability
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 59
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - TAPPI Journal Summaries
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 61
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 62
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 63
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 64
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - Leadership in Maintenance: Where Do We Start?
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - As a New Reliability Engineer, Are you Confused About Your Role?
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - R&M Tips
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - Paper and Board Have Key Roles in the Future of Packaging
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 69
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - Global Paper and Paperboard Demand Growing Despite Declines in Graphic Paper
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 71
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - PPI Awards Showcase Industry Excellence
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 73
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 74
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 75
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 76
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 77
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 78
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - TAPPI News
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - 80
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - ASPI News
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - Index of Advertisers
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - cover3
Paper360 - March/April 2018 - cover4
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