American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 119

SpecialReport: Well Stimulation & Completion Technology
FIGURE 1 Muzzle Inserts Distributing Slurry Flow Parallel to Casing The three major objectives of a deepwater sand control completion–obtaining sand-free production for increased well longevity, maintaining or increasing the well injection or production index, and delivering a quick and precise deployment to minimize completion time–usually require specific sets of service tools to perform the job. It is very hard to optimize the cost and equipment delivery time with a huge inventory to manage. On the other hand, the completion may require tools that must operate precisely and subtly during installation to preserve the delicate open-hole filter cake, or in other instances, require tools capable of dealing with high-horsepower pumps, extreme proppant volumes, and high differential pressures during frac packing jobs. These extreme contrasting types of completions–in which one goal is to avoid fracturing the formation while packing the well, and the other is to create huge fractures while packing it–commonly demand an extensive inventory to cover the applications, generate lower response to well completion uncertainties, create contract limitations, and require a lot of specialized personnel to cover each type of operation. Extreme-Performance Systems As noted, rig time is a major factor to manage during deepwater completion operations. To optimize completion results, longer-pay section, single-trip treatments are sometimes desirable. However, longer intervals require higher pumping rates for frac packing, which in combination with

hole horizontal well actually starts when the drill bit enters the reservoir interval. A specialized drilling fluid with nondamaging filtrate possesses properties that will deliver a durable, quick forming and thin filter cake. The main challenges for these completions relate to getting to the bottom with equipment and providing a full packed well. This completion type usually uses water-based fluids to carry and deposit the proppant from heel to toe of the well, creating a phenomenon called “alpha wave” deposition. The void on the top of the alpha wave is then filled by a beta wave from toe to heel. There are also oil-based fluids that maintain the Newtonian characteristics of water-based fluids, allowing an alpha and beta wave completion. These fluids are highly recommended in open-hole wells with reactive shale; inhibiting the shale from reacting with the brine used for gravel packing and facilitating equipment deployment to bottom. This dynamic is maintained by a well balanced and integrated system. It includes the proper generation of the filter cake, maintained by hydrostatic pressure-balanced service tools that keep the well in an overbalance condition during the entire operation. As completions move into deeper water, the operating window for this technique narrows. The high hydrostatic column of the wells could conflict with the formation’s low fracture gradients. Opposite to a frac pack operation, it is not

desirable to inject fluid into the formation during a horizontal open-hole gravel pack operation. In this case, the slurry may dehydrate, increasing its proppant concentration and disturbing the equilibrium of the pumping design. Therefore, the filter cake must be maintained intact during the operation, preventing/minimizing fluid loss. The factor used to determine formation fracturing pressure is a function of well depth in units of psi/feet. For example, a fracture gradient of 0.7 psi/feet in a well with a true vertical depth of 8,000 feet would predict a fracturing pressure of 5,600 psi.

FIGURE 2 Temperature and Pressure Classifications for Sand Control
500

450 Reservoir Temperature (F)

HT
400 350 300 250

HPHT

Extreme HPHT

Ultra HPHT

Traditional

HP

200 5,000

10,000

15,000 20,000 Differential Pressure (psi)

25,000

30,000

DECEMBER 2011 119



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011

American Oil and Gas Reporter 12/11
Contents
Reports
Calendar
Oil & Gas Counts
State Legislative
Industry Digest
Tech Connections
Washington Watch
Keystone XL
Liaison Committee
Shale Gas Subcommittee
Endangered Species
Midstream Startups Emerging to Meet Booming Demand
Liquids Resource Plays Have Oil Production Rising Again
Organizers Anticipating Big Things for 2012 PBIOS
Cover Story
R&D Areas Key to Improving Fracturing
Natural Gas Offers Solutions as Transportation Fuel
Completion Design, Frac Modeling Optimize Eagle Ford Wells
Novel Drill-In Fluid Excels in Horizontal ERD Wells
Technologies Optimize Sand Control
Operators Must Manage Risk Before, During and After Drilling
OCS Access: BOEM Offers Business-as-Usual OCS Leasing Plan
Court Finds for Insurers in Gulf Spill Ruling
OIPA
Clean Air Act
IOGA NY
COGA
IPAA Annual
Louisiana
West Virginia
Pennsylvania
Texas
The American Well Servicing Directory, Winter 2011
Industry Focus
Classified Advertising
Advertisers Index
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - American Oil and Gas Reporter 12/11
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Cover2
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Contents
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Reports
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 5
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 6
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 7
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Calendar
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 9
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 10
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 11
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Oil & Gas Counts
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 13
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Industry Digest
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 15
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 16
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 17
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 18
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 19
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 20
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 21
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 22
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 23
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 24
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 25
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 26
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 27
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 28
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Tech Connections
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 30
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Washington Watch
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Keystone XL
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 33
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Liaison Committee
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 35
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 36
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 37
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Shale Gas Subcommittee
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 39
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Endangered Species
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 41
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Midstream Startups Emerging to Meet Booming Demand
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 43
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 44
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 45
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 46
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 47
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 48
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 49
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 50
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 51
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 52
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 53
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 54
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 55
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 56
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 57
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Liquids Resource Plays Have Oil Production Rising Again
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 59
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 60
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 61
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 62
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 63
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 64
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 65
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 66
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 67
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 68
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 69
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 70
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 71
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 72
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Organizers Anticipating Big Things for 2012 PBIOS
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Cover Story
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 75
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 76
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 77
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 78
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 79
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 80
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 81
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 82
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - R&D Areas Key to Improving Fracturing
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 84
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 85
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 86
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 87
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 88
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 89
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 90
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Natural Gas Offers Solutions as Transportation Fuel
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 92
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 93
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 94
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 95
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Completion Design, Frac Modeling Optimize Eagle Ford Wells
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 97
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 98
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 99
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 100
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 101
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 102
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 103
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 104
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 105
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 106
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 107
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 108
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 109
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 110
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Novel Drill-In Fluid Excels in Horizontal ERD Wells
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 112
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 113
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 114
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 115
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 116
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Technologies Optimize Sand Control
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 118
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 119
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 120
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 121
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Operators Must Manage Risk Before, During and After Drilling
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 123
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 124
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 125
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 126
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 127
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 128
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - OCS Access: BOEM Offers Business-as-Usual OCS Leasing Plan
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Court Finds for Insurers in Gulf Spill Ruling
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 131
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 132
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - OIPA
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 134
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 135
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Clean Air Act
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 137
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - IOGA NY
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 139
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 140
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 141
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 142
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 143
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - COGA
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 145
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 146
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - IPAA Annual
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 148
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 149
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 150
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 151
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Louisiana
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 153
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 154
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 155
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - West Virginia
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 157
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Pennsylvania
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Texas
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 160
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - The American Well Servicing Directory, Winter 2011
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 162
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 163
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 164
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 165
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 166
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 167
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 168
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 169
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 170
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 171
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 172
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 173
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 174
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 175
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 176
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 177
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 178
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 179
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 180
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 181
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 182
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 183
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 184
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 185
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Industry Focus
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 187
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 188
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 189
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 190
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 191
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Classified Advertising
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - 193
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Advertisers Index
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Cover3
American Oil & Gas Reporter - December 2011 - Cover4
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