American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 135

SpecialReport: Offshore & Subsea Technology
for the H2 well. Before modeling the ICDs, full-field history matching was performed to calibrate the fluid saturations, pressure and petrophysical properties. The black oil simulator was used for the history matching. The historic oil rate control was used as a development strategy along with a minimum bottom-hole pressure limit. Figure 4 shows the results of history matching analysis for the field. The simulated historic oil, water and gas rates were matched with the resepective observed data. From Figure 4, the first two vertical wells (V1 and V2) produced most of the gas cap. Well V3 had high water production. It started producing in the late 1970s and was shut in after a decade of high water production. It came on line again in late 2007 and produced for a couple years. The H1 horizontal well was completed with prepacked screens in early 1995. The well began producing at very high water rates, but it also had higher oil production compared with the vertical wells. Higher water production has been an issue in every well drilled in this sand because of the high vertical permeability, and this issue became severe in the case of the H1 wells. After more than four years of production, H1 was plugged because of sanding from a mechnical failure of the completion string. The history match was also done on individual wells to assure the consistency of the simulation model. After matching the rates, observed pressure data were plotted against the simulated pressure. Completion Design After calibrating the reservoir model for pressure and saturations, production was forecast for the new H2 horizontal well. Based on the reservoir heterogeneity, the production challenges for a horizontal well can be described as friction pressure loss from toe to heel, and coning at the heel (large drawdown for long wells) in the case of homogeneous reservoirs, and high permeability layers, faults and fractures, and early water or gas breakthroughs in the case of heterogeneous reservoirs. In this Gulf of Mexico Shelf application, the reservoir has relatively homogeneous sand, making water coning more likely to occur at the heel of the new horizontal well. Because of the higher vertical permeability, high water production was inevitable, even though the H2 well was planned to be landed on top of the structure. To delay/control high water cuts FIGURE 4 Full-Field History Match of Oil, Water and Gas Rates
Gas Flowrate [Mcf/d], [Mcf/d] 10 10,000 1,000 100 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.0001

Liquid Flowrate [STB/d], [STB/d] 1 0.1 10 100 0.0001 0.001 0.01

1,000 1964

1968

1972

1976

1980

1984

1988

1992

1996

2000

2004

2008

Water production rate History_Oil Control Oil production rate History_Oil Control

Gas production rate History_Oil Control Oil production rate Observed

Gas production rate Observed Water production rate Observed

and sand production, ICDs along with gravel packing were planned as part of the completion design. For the forecast, four completion designs were compared to show the value of ICDs. The most common ICD has a nozzlebased design, with a nozzle in the front and a screen at the back to protect the nozzle from sand and debris. The nozzle diameter can be designed to control the pressure drop across it, and therefore, the fluid rate. ICDs create a pressure differential across the screen such that the annulus pressure is greater than the tubing pressure. This lowers the drawdown pressure on the reservoir. By designing the ICDs correctly, the drawdown pressure balance across the length of the well can be achieved. To achieve this balance, sufficient pressure is needed at the heel to arrive at the same flow rate as the ICDs. This pressure can be delivered using a pump or gas lift. FIGURE 5

In heterogeneous reservoirs where permeability varies significantly across the lateral, especially in fractured carbonates where fluid flow along the annulus between the completion tubing and well bore will take effect, packers can be used for segmentation to isolate zones. Unless ICDs are employed, the flow rate in each section will be roughly proportional to the section permeability. By adjusting the flow restriction in each section, the fluid flux can be balanced within the section and along the lateral from heel to toe. Four completion designs were simulated: open-hole, gravel pack (GP), GP and ICD (GICD), and optimum ICD (OICD). Although open-hole completion is not practical in unconsolidated sand, it was used only as a base case for comparison. The open-hole lateral section is 8.5 inches in diameter and 750 feet long. The gravel pack completion has a 4.5inch screen in a 750-foot lateral packed with gravel in the annulus. In the case of

Cell Permeability along the Lateral Section and ICD Joints Separated by Packers

JUNE 2012 135



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012

American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012
Contents
Reports
Calendar
Oil & Gas Counts
State Legislative
Industry Digest
Natural Gas NSPS Affects a Variety of Equipment
Federal Legislation
SPCC
EPA
Keystone XL
Tech Connections
Washington Watch
Anadarko Finds World-Class Reservoirs in Deepwater Mozambique
Variety of Projects Have Permian Basin Hopping
Infrastructure Bottlenecks Easing in Permian Region
Completion Design Optimizes Yeso-San Andres Oil Wells
Cover Story
Beaver Creek CO2 Flood Boosts Madison Production
Study Evaluates Low-Salinity Waterfloods
Variable Speed Drives Coming of Age
Activity Spurring Artificial Lift Innovations
Project Shows STMZ’s Viability for Lower Tertiary Completions
ICDs, Modeling Improve Horizontal Shelf Well Completion
Intelligent Gas Lift Maximizes Production, Recovery
KOGA
CIPA
TOGA
TAEP
Frac Rules
Marcellus Regs
Conventions
The American Well Servicing Directory, Summer 2012
Industry Focus
Classified Advertising
Advertisers Index
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Cover2
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Contents
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Reports
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 5
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 6
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 7
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Calendar
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 9
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 10
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 11
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 12
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 13
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Oil & Gas Counts
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 15
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Industry Digest
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 17
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 18
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 19
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 20
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 21
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 22
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 23
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Natural Gas NSPS Affects a Variety of Equipment
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 25
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 26
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 27
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Federal Legislation
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 29
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 30
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 31
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - SPCC
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 33
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Keystone XL
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 35
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 36
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Tech Connections
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 38
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Washington Watch
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Anadarko Finds World-Class Reservoirs in Deepwater Mozambique
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 41
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 42
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 43
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 44
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 45
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 46
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 47
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 48
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 49
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Variety of Projects Have Permian Basin Hopping
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 51
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 52
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 53
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 54
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 55
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 56
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 57
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 58
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 59
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 60
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 61
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 62
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 63
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Infrastructure Bottlenecks Easing in Permian Region
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 65
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 66
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 67
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 68
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 69
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 70
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 71
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Completion Design Optimizes Yeso-San Andres Oil Wells
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 73
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 74
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 75
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 76
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 77
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 78
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 79
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 80
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 81
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Cover Story
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 83
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 84
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 85
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 86
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 87
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 88
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 89
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 90
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 91
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Beaver Creek CO2 Flood Boosts Madison Production
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 93
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 94
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 95
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 96
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 97
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 98
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 99
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Study Evaluates Low-Salinity Waterfloods
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 101
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 102
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 103
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Variable Speed Drives Coming of Age
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 105
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 106
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 107
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Activity Spurring Artificial Lift Innovations
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 109
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 110
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 111
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 112
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 113
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 114
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 115
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 116
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 117
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Project Shows STMZ’s Viability for Lower Tertiary Completions
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 119
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 120
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 121
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 122
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 123
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 124
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 125
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 126
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 127
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 128
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 129
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 130
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - ICDs, Modeling Improve Horizontal Shelf Well Completion
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 132
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 133
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 134
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 135
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 136
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 137
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 138
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 139
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 140
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Intelligent Gas Lift Maximizes Production, Recovery
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 142
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 143
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 144
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 145
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 146
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 147
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 148
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - KOGA
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 150
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 151
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - CIPA
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 153
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 154
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 155
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - TOGA
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 157
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 158
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 159
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 160
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 161
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 162
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 163
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - TAEP
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 165
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 166
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 167
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 168
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 169
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 170
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Frac Rules
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Marcellus Regs
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 173
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Conventions
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - The American Well Servicing Directory, Summer 2012
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 176
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 177
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 178
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 179
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 180
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 181
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 182
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 183
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 184
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 185
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 186
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 187
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 188
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 189
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 190
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 191
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 192
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 193
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 194
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 195
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 196
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 197
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 198
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 199
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 200
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 201
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 202
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Industry Focus
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 204
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 205
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 206
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 207
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - 208
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Classified Advertising
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Advertisers Index
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Cover3
American Oil and Gas Reporter - June 2012 - Cover4
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