American Oil and Gas Reporter - August 2017 - 56

SpecialReport: Hydraulic Fracturing Technology
FIGURE 2
Fracture Treatment Plot (Eagle Ford Well using VFR Fluid)
10.00
120.00

Blender
Wellhead Pressure (psi)

Btm Prop Conc (ppg)
Discharge Rate FM (bpm)

8.000
96.00

10.00
120.00
8.000
96.00

Start 30/50 sand

Start 40/70 sand

6.000
72.00

6.000
72.00

4.000
48.00

4.000
48.00

100 mesh stages

2.000
24.00

98.3

139.8
Time (min)

ule for the wells completed with the VFR
fluid. A total of 532,500 pounds of proppant
was placed with no screenouts on any of
the stages. Friction reducer loading for
the first four stages was 0.5 gpt of VFR
fluid. During stage 7, when the 100-mesh
sand concentration reached 1.0 pound/gallon, the VFR concentration was increased
to 1.0 gpt, and systematically raised to
2.5 gpt throughout the remaining proppant
stages.
Figure 2 shows a fracturing treatment
plot during one of the stages. Several
large pressure fluctuations occurred during
the early portions of the job, indicating
additional perforation clusters breaking
down and/or additional fracture surface
area being created (both a core part of
the frac design strategy). For the remaining
portion of the treatment, pressure followed
a downward trend and then began to
slowly build, indicating stable fracture
geometry growth and fracture network
packing. Friction reducer concentration
was adjusted at several points during
later treatment stages to facilitate the desired placement strategy.
Figure 3 shows cumulative oil production normalized to lateral length for the
two wells. Both produced more oil after
30 days than other wells in the area under
similar managed-choke conditions. The
production results are encouraging and
align with the goal of reducing completion
costs while maintaining or increasing production rates. Since making the transition
to VFR fluid, Earthstone's Eagle Ford
completion costs in the Flatonia region
have been reduced by 35 percent, and it is
now using the system in other areas.
56 THE AMERICAN OIL & GAS REPORTER

181.3

222.7

0.00
0.0

Permian Basin Case Study
In the Permian, another operator selected VFR fluid for its versatility to facilitate any of the frac design requirements
in multiple reservoir targets in the
Delaware and Midland Basins. Significant
variations in formation characteristics
exist from well to well across both areas.
These variations, along with differences
in frac designs and objectives for the different reservoir targets, historically required the use of several fluid systems,
which complicated logistics and pumping

FIGURE 3
Fracture Treatment Plot (Flatonia Area VFR Wells versus Offsets)
8

Color by
Subset_Area

7

Flatonia Townsite
Hope 1
Hope 2
Matthews North

6

Avg (Cum Oil/Ft)

0.00
0.0 56.9

2.000
24.00

operations.
The lithology of the Delaware Wolfcamp is analogous to the Midland Wolfcamp, and is characterized by interbedded
shale and limestone. With more than 600
feet of potential target pay within the
Wolfcamp A and B formations, and significant lithology variations throughout
the target intervals, many scenarios exist
with regard to selecting lateral landing
points, target intervals for stimulation,
vertical and lateral offset distances, and
other considerations. In the Midland
Spraberry play, multiple targets also exist
over several hundred feet and similar
factors must be considered for well placement and completion design.
The frac design strategy varies by
area, but in smaller and more contained
formation sections, the goal is to obtain
a complex fracture network to maximize
reservoir contact. In areas of tighter well
spacing, the operator's objective is to
control fracture length growth to mitigate
the risk of "frac hits" and production interference with offset wells. In thick
reservoir sections, the main goal is to
stimulate as many layers as possible.
The VFR fluid was selected for its
flexibility to assist in achieving any of
these frac design strategies while ensuring
the placement of the designed amount of
proppant volume per foot of lateral. Low
friction reducer concentrations can be
used to create complexity, while higher

Matthews South
Murphy N
Richards N
Rumley 1
Rumley 2

5
4
3
2
1
0
0

10

20

30

40
50
Normalized Prod Day

60

70

80

90



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