American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2018 - 130

SPECIAL REPORT: DRILLING TECHNOLOGY
tion, wellbore tortuosity, hole cleaning
or other downhole conditions.
The differences in outcomes for these
six wells, at the same depth or in the
same formation, illustrate that drilling
parameters appropriate for one well in a
pad are not necessarily appropriate for
other wells drilled from the same pad.

FIGURE 3
Display Showing Dial, Time-Cased Trend Chart and Cone

Results And Conclusions

Four of the wells indicated that they
were operating with high drilling optimization indexes. The other two wells,
however, exhibited stick-slip at the same
depth, causing their drilling optimization
index to fall while their ROP values remained high. In two wells, ROP and
WOB values were very close, but had
very disparate drilling optimization values
of 0.99 and 0.40, respectively. The wide
range of these index values may have
been caused by factors such as bit condiFIGURE 4

130 THE AMERICAN OIL & GAS REPORTER

Drilling Optimization Index (at 11,550 feet)
Well 3, 0.99, ROP =
135.79 ft/hr

25

Well 5, 0.40, ROP =
118.13 ft/hr,
BIT_BOUNCE_BELIEF
0.26

20

WOB (1,000 lbs)

in an intuitive "speedometer-type" visual
as a single, dimensionless index.
The index may be graphed on a depthbased chart and used to generate daily
reports and to benchmark drilling parameters for various depths and geological
formations. Contractors and operators
may use this data to improve drillers'
skills, set drilling benchmarks and prevent
drill bit and mud motor failures.
In early 2017, Apache Corporation
integrated the drilling optimization index
into its real-time data aggregation and
distribution software on 20 North American onshore rigs. The integration process
was guided by human factor engineering
principles. The drilling optimization
index and drilling dysfunction beliefs
have dedicated displays that include a
color-coded dial with intuitive green
(optimal drilling), orange (acceptable
drilling with room for improvement)
and red (inefficient drilling) to facilitate
monitoring of drilling efficiency, and
time-based and depth-based trend charts
(Figure 3).
For a focused study, the operator applied
the principles of the new system to six
wells that were drilled from the same pad
to ensure uniform comparisons. The drilling
optimization index was calculated in the
WOB-rpm space at a particular depth
within the lateral hole section (Figure 4).

The developers of the technology also
attempted to generate drilling optimization
heat maps directly from the drilling data
of the six wells by plotting the drilling
optimization index in the WOB-rpm space
over a range of depths within the same
formations. They drew contour plots from
the scattered operating points using linear
interpolation. Corresponding ROP values
and stick-slip and whirl beliefs were similarly plotted while other beliefs, such as
bit-bounce, were deemed sufficiently low
to be disregarded.
They concluded that because drilling
parameter heat maps can be highly nonlinear and nonconvex, arriving at a global
optimum may be difficult, or impossible,
to achieve in practice. In addition, they
found that drilling optimization heat maps
generated from idealized models may be
highly inaccurate when compared with
actual drilling data.

Well 6, 0.97, ROP =
130.66 ft/hr

15
Well 4, 0.99, ROP =
89.53 ft/hr
10
Well 1, 0.43, ROP =
107.38 ft/hr,
WHIRL_BELIEF 0.29

Well 2, 0.79, ROP =
124.34 ft/hr,
WHIRL_BELIEF 0.10

5

0
0

10

20

30

40
RPM

50

60

70



American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2018

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2018

Contents
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2018 - 1
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American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2018 - Contents
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