ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 19

Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007), the DOE hosts industry-led Commercial Building Energy Alliances focused on specific interests of key sectors. To date, DOE has launched three alliances representing substantial proportions of the square footage in their respective sectors: the Retailer Energy Alliance (17%), the Commercial Real Estate Energy Alliance (21%), and the Hospital Energy Alliance (17%).1,2,3 EISA 2007 also authorizes the Net-Zero Energy Commercial Building Initiative to support the goal of net zero energy for all new commercial buildings by 2030, and specifies a zero-energy target for 50% of U.S. commercial buildings by 2040 and net zero for all U.S. commercial buildings by 2050. Some members of the alliances take their commitment to high performance an additional step. With technical support from DOE national laboratories, each of these “National Account” companies pledges to design and construct one new building that is at least 50% more efficient than ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 and to renovate a facility to achieve at least 30% savings over standard practices. With these investments—and the detailed measurement and verification that will accompany them—researchers will gain a richer understanding of the best practices and technologies for achieving high performance, along with the operational and cost data for a solid business case. By sharing this knowledge base with peers, industry leaders will spur further investment in high-performance buildings—and, over time, a critical mass of data will enable increasingly precise modeling of building energy performance and greater certainty in net zero energy design. Building design professional societies also have recognized the vision of net zero energy buildings. For example: • ASHRAE Vision 2020 report4 sets out requirements for developing the tools by 2020 to enable commercially viable net zero energy buildings by 2030. ASHRAE’s recent conference on net zero energy buildings featured more than 25 posters5 of NZEBs, some operating close to or at net zero and others in various stages of design or construction. • The AIA 2030 Challenge6 calls for incrementally reducing energy use, starting with a 50% reduction over existing buildings’ energy use and increasing savings up to 2030, when new buildings will be carbon neutral. Architecture firms, large and small, are beginning to make this voluntary commitment to adopt energy-saving targets in building design and implement steps to reach the carbon-neutral goal. Policymakers also are embracing net zero energy buildings as a key strategy for meeting energy and carbon goals. The California Public Utilities Commission, for example, has an energy action plan to achieve net zero energy for all new residential construction by 2020 and net zero for all new commercial construction by 2030. This action plan will provide direction for future development of California’s Title 24 building energy codes, as well as incentives for net zero buildings. NZEB goals also were recently announced by the European Union (EU) in a March 2009 press release.7 All EU Member States are to ensure that all newly constructed buildings produce as much energy as they consume on-site no later than Dec. 31, 2018. September 2009 Impact of Buildings on Energy Buildings have a significant impact on energy use and the environment. Commercial and residential buildings use almost 40% of the primary energy and approximately 70% of the electricity in the United States.10 The energy used by the building sector continues to increase, primarily because new buildings are constructed faster than old ones are retired. Electricity consumption in the commercial building sector doubled between 1980 and 2000 and is expected to increase another 50% by 2025.10 45 40 35 30 Quads 25 20 15 10 5 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Growth in buildings’ energy use relative to other sectors. Residential Buildings Total Commercial Transportation Industrial It is still early in the collection and analysis of energy-performance data. But it is already clear that high-performance commercial buildings—some NZEBs, some “almost NZEBs”—can be constructed cost effectively, providing productive environments for occupants, reducing operating costs, and enhancing the competitiveness of commercial properties. Here is a synopsis of what we’ve learned so far. From “Real Low” to Zero Our earliest experiences were with high-performance buildings that were not designed for net zero energy. DOE monitored the performance of six of these “real low energy buildings.”8 What we found is that all of these buildings delivered significant energy and cost savings under actual operating conditions—but that none of them reached the levels of savings modeled in the design. First, design teams were a bit too optimistic about the occupants’ behavior and acceptance of systems. Undoubtedly, some of the shortfall also rested with inherent uncertainty of designing buildings and forecasting their performance. Energy consumption was higher and photovoltaic (PV) energy production was lower than simulations predicted. In particular, daylighting contributed less than predicted, which meant more electrical lighting was used.8 Again, driving down this uncertainty—and accelerating investments in net zero energy buildings—is the motivation behind the Zero Energy Buildings Database.9 ASHRAE Journal 19

ASHRAE Journal - September 2009

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - September 2009

ASHRAE Journal - September 2009
Contents
Commentary
Industry News
Letters
Meetings and Shows
Getting to Net Zero
Feature Articles
How High Can You Go? Building Height and Net Zero
Lab for Learning
Solar Hot-Water Heating System: Lessons Learned
50th Anniversary—Low Pressure Steam Heating Systems
Building Sciences
Products
Emerging Technologies
People
Classified Advertising
Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - ASHRAE Journal - September 2009
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 2
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 4
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Commentary
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Industry News
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Letters
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Meetings and Shows
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Feature Articles
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 20
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 22
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - How High Can You Go? Building Height and Net Zero
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 30
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 32a
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 32b
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 34
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Lab for Learning
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 42
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 43
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Solar Hot-Water Heating System: Lessons Learned
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 45
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 46
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 47
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 48
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 49
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 50
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 51
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 52
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 50th Anniversary—Low Pressure Steam Heating Systems
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 55
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 56
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 57
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 58
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 59
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 60
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ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 70
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 71
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Building Sciences
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 73
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ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 76
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 77
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 78
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 79
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 80
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 81
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Products
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 83
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Emerging Technologies
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 85
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 86
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 87
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 88
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 89
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - People
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 91
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 92
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Classified Advertising
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 94
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 95
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Cover4
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