ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 25

All NZEBs must reduce site energy use through energy efficiency and demand-side renewable building technologies. (Examples: Daylighting, insulation, passive solar heating, high-efficiency HVAC equipment, natural ventilation, evaporative cooling, ground-source heat pumps, ocean water cooling.) In addition, they must use supply-side renewable energy according to one of the four NZEB classifications. Column three of this chart discusses the ability of each classification to meet the site, source, emissions, and cost definitions of NZEBs. ZEB Classification Renewable Energy Supply-Side Options ZEB Definitions Yes: Site, Source, Emissions Difficult: Cost If the source and emissions multipliers for a ZEB:A are high during times of utility energy use but low during times the ZEB is exporting to the grid, reaching a source or emissions ZEB position may be difficult. Qualifying as a cost ZEB may be difficult depending on the net-metering policies in the area. On-Site Supply Options A Use renewable energy sources available within the building’s footprint and directly connected to the building’s electrical or hot/chilled water distribution system. (Examples: Photovoltaic, solar hot water, and wind located on the building.) Use renewable energy sources as described in ZEB:A and B Use renewable energy sources available at the building site and directly connected to the building’s electrical or hot/chilled water distribution system. (Examples: Photovoltaic, solar hot water, low-impact hydroelectric, and wind located on parking lots, adjacent open space, but not physically mounted on the building.) Yes: Site, Source, Cost, Emissions Difficult: Cost If the source and emissions multipliers for a ZEB:B are high during times of utility energy use but low during times the ZEB is exporting to the grid, reaching a source or emissions ZEB position may be difficult. Qualifying as a cost ZEB may be difficult depending on the net-metering policies in the area. Use renewable energy sources as described in ZEB:A and ZEB:B and C Off-Site Supply Options Use renewable energy sources available off-site to generate energy on-site and directly connected to the building’s electrical or hot/ chilled water distribution system. (Examples: Biomass, wood pellets, ethanol, or biodiesel that can be imported from off-site, or collected from waste streams from on-site processes that can be used on-site to generate electricity and heat.) Yes: Site Difficult: Source, Cost, Emissions A ZEB:C source and emission position may be difficult if carbon-neutral renewables such as wood chips are used or if ZEB has an unfavorable source and carbon multipliers. This can occur if a ZEB exports energy during times that the utility has low source and carbon impacts, but imports energy when the utility has high source and carbon impacts. ZEB:C buildings typically do not reach a cost ZEB position because renewable materials are purchased to bring on-site—it would be very difficult to recoup these expenses by any compensation received from the utility for renewable energy generation. Use renewable energy sources as described in ZEB:A, ZEB:B, and ZEB:C and Purchase certified recently added off-site renewable energy sources, as certified from Green-E12 or other equivalent renewable-energy certification programs. Continue to purchase the generation from this new resource to maintain ZEB status. (Examples: Utility-based wind, photovoltaic, emissions credits, or other “green” purchasing options. All off-site purchases must be certified as recently added renewable energy.12 A building could also negotiate with its power provider to install dedicated wind turbines or PV panels at a site with good solar or wind resources off-site. In this approach, the building might own the hardware and receive credits for the power. The power company or a contractor would maintain the hardware.) D Yes: Source, Emissions No: Site, Cost ZEB:D buildings may qualify as source and emissions if they purchase enough renewable energy and have favorable source and emissions factors. They will not qualify as site and cost. Table 1: Classifying net zero energy buildings by renewable energy supply. References 1. Retailer Energy Alliance. www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/retailer. 2. Commercial Real Estate Energy Alliance. www.eere.energy.gov/ buildings/real_estate/. 3. Hospital Energy Alliance. www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/hospital/. 4. “ASHRAE Vision 2020.” 2008. www.ashrae.org/doclib/20080226_ ashraevision2020.pdf. 5. ASHRAE Net Zero Conference. 2009. Poster Presentations. www. ashrae.org/events/page/2198. 6. AIA 2030 Challenge. www.aia.org/about/initiatives/AIAB079458. 7. European Union (EU) Press Release. 2009. www.europarl. europa.eu/pdfs/news/expert/infopress/20090330IPR52892/2009033 0IPR52892_en.pdf. September 2009 8. Torcellini, P., et al. 2006. “Lessons Learned from Case Studies of Six High-Performance Buildings.” NREL Report No. TP-550-37542. Golden, Colo.: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. www.nrel.gov/ docs/fy06osti/37542.pdf. 9. U.S. Department of Energy. Zero Energy Buildings Database. zeb. buildinggreen.com. 10. EIA. 2005. Annual Energy Review 2004. Washington: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. www.eia. doe.gov/emeu/aer/contents.html. 11. Torcellini, P., et al. 2006. “Zero Energy Buildings: A Critical Look at the Definition. ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings.” Golden, Colo.: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 12. Green-E. 2009. www.green-e.org (last accessed March 2009). ASHRAE Journal 25

ASHRAE Journal - September 2009

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - September 2009

ASHRAE Journal - September 2009
Contents
Commentary
Industry News
Letters
Meetings and Shows
Getting to Net Zero
Feature Articles
How High Can You Go? Building Height and Net Zero
Lab for Learning
Solar Hot-Water Heating System: Lessons Learned
50th Anniversary—Low Pressure Steam Heating Systems
Building Sciences
Products
Emerging Technologies
People
Classified Advertising
Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - ASHRAE Journal - September 2009
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 2
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 4
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Commentary
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Industry News
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Letters
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Meetings and Shows
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Feature Articles
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 20
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 22
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - How High Can You Go? Building Height and Net Zero
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 30
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 32a
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 32b
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ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 34
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Lab for Learning
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 42
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 43
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Solar Hot-Water Heating System: Lessons Learned
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 45
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 46
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 47
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ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 51
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 52
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 50th Anniversary—Low Pressure Steam Heating Systems
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 55
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 56
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 57
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ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Building Sciences
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ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 80
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 81
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Products
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 83
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Emerging Technologies
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 85
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 86
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 87
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 88
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 89
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - People
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 91
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 92
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Classified Advertising
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 94
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 95
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Cover4
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