ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 26

How High Can You Go? T o determine whether the combination of building type, façade and site conditions permit a net zero energy building, screening level calculations must be done. For example, in a particular location, can a net zero energy building be one story? Two stories? Using standard assumptions on internal gains, and a high performance building façade, the maximum height of a zero energy building in Abu Dhabi, UAE, is approximately two stories, according to modeling done by the authors. This presumes that the solar collector area is the same as the footprint of the building. If internal gains are aggressively reduced, then a three- to five-story, net zero energy building might be possible. Net Zero Building Height and Net Zero By Duncan Phillips, Ph.D., P .Eng., Assoc. Member ASHRAE; Meiring Beyers, Ph.D.; and Joel Good, Assoc. Member ASHRAE infiltration and other parameters can be adjusted to lower energy use for a hypothetical building in Abu Dhabi, UAE. This energy demand is then compared to the energy harvested on site within the same footprint of the building. Different energy harvesting strategies are evaluated and the combination of these two analyses points to a maximum building height that can be designed while maintaining a net zero energy demand. A few key envelope design and renewable energy decisions may limit the maximum height of a building attempting to obtain net zero energy status. Methodology Many definitions of net zero exist,1 and some buildings meeting one definition do not come close to meeting others. As a minimum, a net zero energy building must achieve an operating net zero energy demand. This means that the combination of 26 ASHRAE Journal all building energy demands must be offset by the energy harvested within the site or project. This is the lowest target level as it does not acknowledge the embodied energy in the building materials and construction, nor the quality of the energy produced. When proposing a net zero energy building, a design team must make assumptions about the building and associated occupant energy use and the potential for energy harvesting at the building site. This information is not always readily apparent. In addition, the choice of building façade, mechanical systems and occupant behavior have significant impacts on whether a building can achieve a low enough energy use to match the energy produced on site. This article illustrates how the combinations of building façade, daylighting, ashrae.org A building’s energy consumption can be coarsely broken down into envelope needs, occupant needs and system efficiencies. About the Authors Duncan Phillips, Ph.D., P .Eng., is a senior associate and project director, and Meiring Beyers, Ph.D., is an associate and project director at Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin (RWDI) in Guelph, ON, Canada. Joel Good is a specialist at RWDI in Vancouver, BC, Canada. September 2009

ASHRAE Journal - September 2009

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - September 2009

ASHRAE Journal - September 2009
Contents
Commentary
Industry News
Letters
Meetings and Shows
Getting to Net Zero
Feature Articles
How High Can You Go? Building Height and Net Zero
Lab for Learning
Solar Hot-Water Heating System: Lessons Learned
50th Anniversary—Low Pressure Steam Heating Systems
Building Sciences
Products
Emerging Technologies
People
Classified Advertising
Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - ASHRAE Journal - September 2009
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 2
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 4
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Commentary
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Industry News
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Letters
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Meetings and Shows
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Feature Articles
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 20
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 22
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - How High Can You Go? Building Height and Net Zero
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 30
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 32a
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 32b
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 34
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Lab for Learning
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 42
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 43
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Solar Hot-Water Heating System: Lessons Learned
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 45
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 46
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 47
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 48
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 49
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 50
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 51
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 52
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 50th Anniversary—Low Pressure Steam Heating Systems
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 55
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 56
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 57
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 58
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 59
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 60
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ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 70
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 71
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Building Sciences
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 73
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 74
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ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 76
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 77
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 78
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 79
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 80
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 81
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Products
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 83
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Emerging Technologies
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 85
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 86
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 87
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 88
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 89
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - People
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 91
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 92
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Classified Advertising
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 94
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - 95
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - September 2009 - Cover4
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