ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 118

Washington Report distribution piping, which tends to be a larger effect with small draws (with either water heater type). Tankless water heaters can be retrofitted in an existing home in many cases. In the typical installation, the tankless water heater package is a rectangular box that is mounted on a wall, and the flue exits through the side wall approximately 2 ft (0.6 m) above the top of the water heater package using a special venting kit. When replacing a gas storage water heater, the installation requires new water and gas connections, along with new venting. Energy Saving Potential Rep Wants Holistic Approach For U.S. Federal Buildings By Ryan M. Colker Representative Russ Carnahan (D-MO), co-chair of the HighPerformance Building Caucus, has been working with members of the High-Performance Building Congressional Caucus Coalition (led by ASHRAE) to develop legislation aimed at providing a holistic approach to the procurement, design, construction, and operations and maintenance of federal buildings. The language will be posted on www.hpbccc.org when it is introduced. The funds appropriated under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) continue to be dispersed to states for various projects and programs. Of particular interest to those in the building community are the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants and other programs from the Department of Energy. See www.energy.gov/recovery and www.eecbg.energy. gov for the latest details. Sens. Jeff Bingaman (D-NM) and Olympia Snowe (R-ME) have introduced bills (S.1639 and S.1637, respectively) to improve and extend tax incentives focused on energy efficiency. Sen. Bingaman’s bill would provide tax credits for a program to replace existing CFC-based chillers—the program includes an energy audit requirement. Additional incentives focused on combined heat and power systems and advanced motors. Senator Snowe’s bill would increase the deduction under the Commercial Building Tax Deduction to $3/ft2 ($32/m2)and provide credits for residential energy audits and related training. Ryan M. Colker is ASHRAE’s manager of government affairs in Washington. Up-to-date information on ASHRAE’s Government Affairs activities is available at www.ashrae.org/advocacy. The annual primary energy consumption in the U.S. for water heating in residential buildings in 2006 was 2.6 quadrillion Btus (quads).2 Of this, 1.15 quads was consumed by natural gas or LPG water heating systems. Assuming that the majority of the natural gas and LPG was consumed in gas storage water heaters, replacement with tankless water heaters would result in annual energy savings of approximately 0.23 quads. The side wall venting of the tankless water heater may create the opportunity to replace some existing electric resistance water heaters, where gas service is available, but a gas storage water heater wasn’t used originally because a chimney-type flue did not exist. Market Factors Tankless gas water heaters are about double the initial equipment cost of storage gas water heaters. For example, at a “big box” home improvement outlet, the price of 50 gallon (190 L) storage gas water heaters ranges between $450 and $600, while the price of several tankless models ranges between $800 and $1,000 (with another $200 for vent kits). However, a tankless water heater will save the average household (i.e., 2.6 occupants) approximately $115 per year in energy costs, and more in households consuming more hot water.3 In new construction, the installation cost of a gas tankless water heater will be similar to the installation cost of a gas storage water heater, including the installation of cold water and hot water connections, a gas supply line, and flue gas venting. The resulting simple payback on the higher initial cost of a tankless water heater will be around five years for the average household. When replacing an existing gas storage water heater, the installation cost of the tankless water heater will likely be higher than the cost of replacing the gas storage water heater with another gas storage water heater, because the tankless water heater will often require modifications to the vent piping and/or water and gas connections. Added installation costs will obviously result in a longer simple payback period. However, utility incentives, tax credits, and longer equipment life may offset a portion of the higher initial costs of tankless systems. A basic market obstacle to replacing existing water heaters with upgraded technology is the “emergency” situation that normally precipitates replacement of a water heater. The 118 ASHRAE Journal homeowner doesn’t notice the water heater until a leak in the tank develops, at which point the homeowner opts for the fastest, least cost replacement that is offered by the plumber. References 1. Hoeschele, M.A. and D.A. Springer. “Field and Laboratory Testing of Gas Tankless Water Heater Performance.” ASHRAE symposium paper SL-08-045, presented at the 2008 ASHRAE Annual Meeting. 2. EERE. 2008. “Buildings Energy Data Book.” U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program. http://buildingsdatabook.eere.energy.gov/. 3. DOE. 2009. “Save Money and More with ENERGY STAR Qualified Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters.” U.S. Department of Energy. http://tinyurl.com/gastankless. John Dieckmann is a director and Kurtis McKenney is a senior technologist in the Mechanical Systems Group of TIAX LLC, Cambridge, Mass. James Brodrick, Ph.D., is a project manager with the Building Technologies Program, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. ashrae.org December 2009

ASHRAE Journal - December 2009

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - December 2009

ASHRAE Journal - December 2009
Contents
Commentary
Industry News
Letters
Meetings and Shows
ASHRAE Building EQ Program
Feature Articles
A Closer Look at Chiller Ratings
Cooling With Less Air: Using Underfloor Air Distribution and Chilled Beams
Cooling Concrete: Containerized Water Chilling Plant
Geothermal for Community Center
Anniversary Feature: Air-Recovery System Versus Conventional Air Conditioning
Technical Topics
New Product Preview
Products
Emerging Technologies
Washington Report
People
Special Products
2009 Feature Articles Indices
Classified Advertising
Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - ASHRAE Journal - December 2009
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 2
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 4
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Commentary
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Industry News
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 10
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Letters
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Meetings and Shows
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Feature Articles
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 20
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - A Closer Look at Chiller Ratings
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 26
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ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 30
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Cooling With Less Air: Using Underfloor Air Distribution and Chilled Beams
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 38
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Cooling Concrete: Containerized Water Chilling Plant
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 43
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 44
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 45
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 46
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 47
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Geothermal for Community Center
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 49
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 50
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 51
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Anniversary Feature: Air-Recovery System Versus Conventional Air Conditioning
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 54
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 55
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 56
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 57
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 58
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 59
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 60
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 61
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Technical Topics
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 63
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 64
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - New Product Preview
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 66
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 67
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 68
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 69
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ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 112
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 113
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Products
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 115
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 116
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Emerging Technologies
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Washington Report
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 119
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - People
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Special Products
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 2009 Feature Articles Indices
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 123
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 124
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 125
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Classified Advertising
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 127
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Cover4
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