ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 29

and Table 1 for all location included in the analysis.) It is clear after reviewing the data from various global locations that by far the most critical performance bucket is the one most understated in the IPLV/NPLV formula: weather. Weather is the most volatile component of the total load over the course of a year. Other components that contribute significantly to the overall load of the building, such as internal and solar loads, are more consistent throughout the year. Therefore, climate, specifically the wet-bulb temperature, has the greatest impact on the associated condenser water temperatures produced by the cooling tower and the building usage of the outside air economizer. Coincidently, without a reduction in condenser water temperatures, the compressor lift is not significantly reduced, which hinders the centrifugal chiller’s ability to leverage the variable-speed drive investment. To illustrate the contribution of different types of loads on a building and to supplement the discussion, Figure 8, p. 30, depicts the load contribution and profile for a typical moderate-climate, two-chiller commercial office space. Clearly, the internal and solar loads are relatively consistent throughout the year, however, the weather load shifts dramatically. This illustrates precisely why the investment in programs that rely on full hour-by-hour location-dependent weather is critical to making accurate conclusions. Conversely, it highlights why bin data will lead to the wrong conclusions, as weather is only representative of a small percentage of the total building load, and does not address the large impact on cooling tower performance. The global analysis figures show how the ARI loading points misrepresent a typical chiller plant. Note that the operation of the chiller consumes the most energy, establishing demand charges with the highest kW. The IPLV/NPLV formula assumes that only 1% of the chiller operation occurs at high loads, and high condenser water temperatures. In reality, the global average for this bucket is 47.9% of a two-chiller plant’s operating hours over the course of a year—that is nearly half. December 2009 100% Load with 85°F Entering Condenser Water Temp. 75% Load with 75°F Entering Condenser Water Temp. 50% Load with 65°F Entering Condenser Water Temp. 25% Load with 65°F Entering Condenser Water Temp. AHRI Percentage Atlanta Bangkok Beijing Cairo Cape Town Caracas Chicago Dallas Denver Dubai Hanoi Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Houston Jerusalem Kansas City London Los Angeles Melbourne Mexico City Miami Moscow Mumbai New Delhi Ottawa Paris Perth Phoenix Riyadh Rome Sao Paulo Seattle Seoul Shanghai Singapore Sydney Taipei Tokyo Vancouver Warsaw Washington, D.C. 1 52 94 44 47 18 95 41 59 19 65 69 97 64 66 23 59 14 19 11 23 78 16 80 53 28 19 18 35 33 43 46 13 45 52 100 29 63 43 10 23 47 45 1 42 30 5 30 28 44 5 29 21 34 27 15 3 18 19 48 19 32 44 24 48 18 38 18 27 32 38 40 42 46 26 39 29 28 24 0 37 22 28 33 33 27 28 42 45 8 0 7 8 15 0 9 7 22 2 2 0 5 3 11 5 18 15 16 15 1 16 1 7 12 13 15 10 8 7 5 21 7 3 0 11 4 4 22 16 6 9 45 12 10 1 19 17 22 0 21 13 25 6 13 0 13 12 18 17 35 22 49 14 3 30 1 13 28 29 27 13 13 24 10 37 20 21 0 23 11 25 35 27 20 18 12 Average AHRI Percentage Table 1: Summary of all global analysis (two-chiller plant). To see all charts in the study, visit www.trane.com/ChillerRatings. ASHRAE Journal 29

ASHRAE Journal - December 2009

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - December 2009

ASHRAE Journal - December 2009
Contents
Commentary
Industry News
Letters
Meetings and Shows
ASHRAE Building EQ Program
Feature Articles
A Closer Look at Chiller Ratings
Cooling With Less Air: Using Underfloor Air Distribution and Chilled Beams
Cooling Concrete: Containerized Water Chilling Plant
Geothermal for Community Center
Anniversary Feature: Air-Recovery System Versus Conventional Air Conditioning
Technical Topics
New Product Preview
Products
Emerging Technologies
Washington Report
People
Special Products
2009 Feature Articles Indices
Classified Advertising
Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - ASHRAE Journal - December 2009
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 2
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 4
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Commentary
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Industry News
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 10
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Letters
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Meetings and Shows
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Feature Articles
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 20
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - A Closer Look at Chiller Ratings
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 26
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 30
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Cooling With Less Air: Using Underfloor Air Distribution and Chilled Beams
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 38
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Cooling Concrete: Containerized Water Chilling Plant
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 43
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 44
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 45
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 46
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 47
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Geothermal for Community Center
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 49
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 50
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 51
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Anniversary Feature: Air-Recovery System Versus Conventional Air Conditioning
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 54
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 55
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 56
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 57
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 58
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 59
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 60
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 61
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Technical Topics
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 63
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 64
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - New Product Preview
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 66
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 67
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 68
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 69
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 70
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 71
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ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 85
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ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 88
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 89
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 90
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 91
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ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 96
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 97
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ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 100
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ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 105
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ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 109
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 110
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 111
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 112
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 113
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Products
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 115
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 116
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Emerging Technologies
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Washington Report
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 119
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - People
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Special Products
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 2009 Feature Articles Indices
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 123
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 124
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 125
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Classified Advertising
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - 127
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - December 2009 - Cover4
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