ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 44

(AIA) Guidelines for Design and Con4,000,000 struction of Healthcare Facilities. The Gas Electricity 3,500,000 template hospital was designed around 3,000,000 the 2001 California Mechanical Code and 2,500,000 was reviewed by the California Office of 2,000,000 Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD), a state-run agency that 1,500,000 reviews all proposed hospitals to ensure 1,000,000 compliance with these codes. 500,000 ASHRAE Standard 62.1-1999, in ef0 fect at the time of permit, advised that 6/08 7/08 8/08 9/08 10/08 11/08 12/08 1/09 2/09 3/09 4/09 5/09 outdoor air should not contain contaminants beyond Environmental Protection Figure 1: Kaiser Antioch facility energy consumption. Agency thresholds or, if so, that it was effectively filtered. The Antioch site’s ambient air pollutants Ventilation effectiveness is maximized based on code refell within California state thresholds for all such pollutants, quirements and AIA recommendations. In operating rooms, with the exception of ozone. The data at the time of analysis nurseries, and invasive procedure rooms, air is supplied at indicated, however, that ambient ozone levels were, in fact, de- the ceiling and is removed at a low level. In patient isolation creasing. Based on this and financial constraints, carbon filters rooms, nurseries, and recovery areas, air is directed from were not included in the design. cleaner spaces into dirtier ones. Due to The 100% outdoor air-handling system code-driven airflow and space temperaEnergy at a Glance ensures hospital air exchange rates meet ture requirements, thermal comfort is not or exceed exchange rates dictated by code directly addressed in terms of ASHRAE Energy Use Intensity (Site): 2·yr and by Standard 62-1999’s Ventilation Standard 55. However, the design meets 350 kBtu/ft Rate Procedure (even when considering the ranges of temperature and humidity Natural Gas: 177 kBtu/ft2·yr the multiple space method). Sources of required by California code. The mild 2·yr unusual indoor contaminants are treated California climate and typical off-AHU Electricity: 173 kBtu/ft with local exhaust ventilation systems. air conditions will result in indoor rela2 These include negative pressure patient Annual Source Energy: 763 kBtu/ft tive humidity falling within the 30% to isolation rooms; grease hoods and dish60% range throughout most of the year. washer hoods in the kitchen; sterilizers Local humidification has been provided and cart washers in the central sterilization department; fume for code-mentioned “sensitive spaces” where RH is otherwise hoods and biological safety cabinets in laboratories and phar- expected to slip below this range. Nonsensitive spaces are macies; and grossing station hood and backdraft systems in allowed to drop below 30% RH, but it is expected that these microscope cleaning areas and pathology work areas. times will not exceed 10% of the year.
Energy Consumption (kWh)

Electricity Option Base 1 2 3 4 5 6 Description Base Case ECM-1 Occupancy Sensors ECM-2 T-8XPS Light Fixtures ECM-3 Occupancy Sensors + T-8XPS Light Fixtures ECM-4 Premium Motors ECM-5 Bundle ECM-1 + ECM-4 ECM-6 Bundle ECM-3 + ECM-4 Consumption Demand
(kWh) (kW)

Natural Gas Cost
($)

Consumption
(Therms)

Cost
($)

Simple Payback
(Years)

22,959,918 22,722,742 22,614,284 22,408,966 22,881,414 22,643,682 22,330,630

3,214 3,183 3,168 3,141 3,202 3,170 3,128

2,312,598 2,288,850 2,277,983 2,257,513 2,304,582 2,280,786 2,249,527

164,556 164,923 164,094 164,421 164,594 164,961 164,458

134,545 134,831 134,964 134,218 134,574 134,860 134,246

N/A 5.9 0.8 3.1 1.0 4.7 2.8

Table 1: Data from the Antioch facility’s Pacific Gas & Energy (PG&E) utility bills for the last 12 months of operation. 44	 ASHRAE	Journal	 ashrae.org	 	 April	 2010



ASHRAE Journal - April 2010

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - April 2010

ASHRAE Journal - April 2010
Contents
Commentary
Industry News
Letters
Meetings and Shows
Feature Articles
The Science of Evaporation is Key to Defense in Murder Trial
Selecting DOAS Equipment with Reserve Capacity
Technology Award Case Studies: Greening Hospitals
Technology Award Case Studies: Sustainable Remedy for Hospital
Building Sciences
Emerging Technologies
Technical Topics: Selecting Efficient Fans
Technical Topics: Dual-Capacity Heat Pumps
IAQ Applications
International Column
Classified Advertising
Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Intro
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - ASHRAE Journal - April 2010
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 2
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Commentary
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Industry News
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 10
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 16
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Letters
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Meetings and Shows
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - The Science of Evaporation is Key to Defense in Murder Trial
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 26
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Selecting DOAS Equipment with Reserve Capacity
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - BRC1
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - BRC2
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 34
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 38
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Technology Award Case Studies: Greening Hospitals
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 43
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 44
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 45
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 46
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 47
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 48
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 49
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Technology Award Case Studies: Sustainable Remedy for Hospital
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 51
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 52
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Building Sciences
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 55
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 56
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - AP1
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - AP2
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - AP3
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - AP4
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 57
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 58
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 59
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Emerging Technologies
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 61
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 62
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 63
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Technical Topics: Selecting Efficient Fans
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 65
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Technical Topics: Dual-Capacity Heat Pumps
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 67
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 68
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 69
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - IAQ Applications
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 71
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 72
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 73
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - International Column
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 75
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 76
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 77
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 78
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 79
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 80
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 81
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 82
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 83
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 84
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 85
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Classified Advertising
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 87
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Cover4
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