ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 73

concentration is reached and the less important these factors are in limiting pathogen dispersion distances and exposures. The larger the number of persons to whom pathogens are dispersed, the lower the average exposure, but the greater the chance of affecting more susceptible persons. The development of these criteria for specific pathogens will require dedicated multi-year committee work by individuals from the ASHRAE disciplines and from infectious disease disciplines. It will need to involve collaboration with health agencies as well. Thanks to the leadership of Richard Fox of Honeywell, representatives of TC9.3, TC9.6, TC2.4, the Environmental Health Committee and health scientists and professionals outside of ASHRAE, the scope of ASHRAE’s pathogen research has been defined for the next five years and research is beginning. While ASHRAE is working on new standards, industry spokespersons could recommend some simple-to-implement precautionary measures that passengers might take. Preflight measures could include getting vaccinations as appropriate; being rested before traveling; and taking disinfectant wipes, hand sanitizers and face breathing masks on board. In-flight measures could include ill passengers wearing masks to protect others (airlines might even offer these to coughers); coughing into sleeves for those not wearing masks; refraining from touching one’s face (wearing a mask helps here); periodically sanitizing your hands and surrounding hard surfaces such as the tray table and armrests; refraining from facing nearby passengers when talking; using a face mask to raise the humidity in your breathing zone if nasal passages are dry; wearing a mask if in an aisle seat or near a washroom; and turning on and pointing overhead air vents to make the air jet flow between you and nearby passengers (do not point it at your face and entrain your neighbor’s breath into your breathing zone). This latter measure will help prevent exchange of airborne pathogens with neighboring persons, and will draw airborne pathogens to the floor returns where they can be exhausted or filtered out. Such measures can be simply and easily described by flight attendants as part of the safety instructions given at the beginning of the flight.
1. Nishimura, S., B. Cox. 2009. “Travelers are worried about germs and expect to pay for in-flight extras, survey says.” Sky Talk, Star Telegram, Fort Worth, Texas. Dec. 9, 2009. 2. Brundage, J.F., et al. 1988. “Building-associated risk of febrile acute respiratory diseases in Army trainees.” JAMA 259(14):2108 – 2112. 3. Whelan E.A., et al. 2003. “Prevalence of respiratory symptoms among female flight attendants and teachers.” Occup Env Med 62:929 – 934. 4. Jones, R.M., et al. 2009. “Characterizing the risk of infection from mycobacterium tuberculosis in commercial passenger aircraft using quantitative microbial risk assessment.” Risk Analysis 29(3):355 – 365. 5. Mangili, A., M.A. Gendreau. 2005. “Transmission of infectious diseases during commercial air travel.” Lancet 365:989 – 996. 6. Driver, C.R., et al. 1994. “Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis associated with air travel.” JAMA 272:1031 – 1035. 7. Tracy, M. 1996. “Transmission of tuberculosis during a long airplane flight [letter].” N Engl J Med. 335:675. April	2010	

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8. Kenyon, T.A., et al. 1996. “Transmission of multidrug-resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis during a long airplane flight.” N Engl J Med. 334:933 – 938. 9. Moser M.R., et al. 1979. “An outbreak of influenza aboard a commercial airliner.” Am J Epidemiol.110:1 – 6. 10. Li, Y., et al. 2007. “Role of ventilation in airborne transmission of infectious agents in the built environment—a multidisciplinary systematic review.” Indoor Air 17:2 – 18. 11. Blachere, F.M., et al. 2009. “Measurement of airborne influenza virus in a hospital emergency department.” CID 48:438 – 440. 12. Sattar S.A., M.K. Ijaz. 2007. “Airborne viruses.” In Manual of Environmental Microbiology, (C. Hurst, et al. eds.) 3rd edition, pp. 1016 – 1030. Washington, D.C.: Am. Soc. Microbiol. 13. Wagner B.G., B.J. Coburn and S. Blower. 2009. “Calculating the potential for within-flight transmission of influenza A (H1N1).” BMC Medicine, 7:81doi:10.1186/1741-7015-7-81. 14. Freeman, L. 2009. “Fear of flu no reason to avoid flying, area health and airline officials say.” Naples News, Naples, Fla. Nov. 21. 15. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 161-2007, Air Quality Within Commercial Aircraft. 16. Transportation Research Board. 2009. Reference materials for “Research on the Transmission of Disease in Airports and Aircraft: A Symposium.” http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/conferences/2009/ SOD/SODReferences.pdf. 17. Horstman, R.H. 1988. “Predicting velocity and contamination distribution in ventilated volumes using Navier-Stokes equations.” IAQ88. 18. Lin, C., et al. 2005. “Numerical simulation of airflow and airborne pathogen transport in aircraft cabins—part I: Numerical simulation of the flow field.” ASHRAE Transactions 111(1):755 – 763. 19. Lin, C., et al. 2005. “Numerical simulation of airflow and airborne pathogen transport in aircraft cabins— part II: Numerical simulation of airborne pathogen transport.” ASHRAE Transactions 111(2):764 – 768. 20. Bennett, J., J. Topmiller, Y. Zhang, W. Dietrich. 2009. “Summarizing exposure patterns on commercial aircraft.” Research on the Transmission of Disease in Airports and Aircraft: A Symposium. 21. Jones, B. 2010. “Advanced models for predicting contaminants and infectious disease virus transport in the airliner cabin environment: Experimental dispersion data.” Research on the Transmission of Disease in Airports and Aircraft: A Symposium. 22. Chen, Q. 2010. “Advanced models for predicting contaminants and infectious disease virus transport in the airliner cabin environment.” Research on the Transmission of Disease in Airports and Aircraft: A Symposium. 23. Fabian, P., et al. 2008. “Influenza virus in human exhaled breath: An observational study.” PLoS ONE 3(7):e2691.doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0002691. 24. Duguid, J.P. 1945. “The size and the duration of air carriage of respiratory droplets and droplet-nuclei.” Journal of Hygiene 54:471 – 479. 25. Lowen, A.C., et al. 2007. “Influenza virus transmission is dependent on relative humidity and temperature.” PLoS Pathogens 3(10):1470 – 1476. 26. Karim, Y.G., et al. 1985. “Effect of relative humidity on the airborne survival of rhinovirus-14.” Can. J. Microbiol 31:1058 – 1061. 27. La Duc, M.T., T. Stuecker T, K. Venkateswaran. 2007. “Molecular bacterial diversity and bioburden of commercial airliner cabin air.” Can. J. Microbiology 53:1259 – 1271. 28. Zitter, J.N. 2002. “Aircraft cabin air recirculation and symptoms of the common cold.” JAMA 288(4):483–486. 29. Walkinshaw, D.S., R.H. Horstman. 2007. “Personal environment airflow controller.” European patent office, WO2007134443 (A1).

Douglas S. Walkinshaw, Ph.D., P .Eng., owns three companies involved in indoor air quality investigations and ventilation technologies and lives in Bonita Springs, Fla., Ottawa and PEI, Canada.
ASHRAE	Journal	 73



ASHRAE Journal - April 2010

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - April 2010

ASHRAE Journal - April 2010
Contents
Commentary
Industry News
Letters
Meetings and Shows
Feature Articles
The Science of Evaporation is Key to Defense in Murder Trial
Selecting DOAS Equipment with Reserve Capacity
Technology Award Case Studies: Greening Hospitals
Technology Award Case Studies: Sustainable Remedy for Hospital
Building Sciences
Emerging Technologies
Technical Topics: Selecting Efficient Fans
Technical Topics: Dual-Capacity Heat Pumps
IAQ Applications
International Column
Classified Advertising
Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Intro
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - ASHRAE Journal - April 2010
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 2
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Commentary
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Industry News
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 10
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 16
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Letters
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Meetings and Shows
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - The Science of Evaporation is Key to Defense in Murder Trial
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 26
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Selecting DOAS Equipment with Reserve Capacity
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - BRC1
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - BRC2
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 34
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 38
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Technology Award Case Studies: Greening Hospitals
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 43
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 44
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 45
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 46
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 47
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 48
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 49
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Technology Award Case Studies: Sustainable Remedy for Hospital
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 51
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 52
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Building Sciences
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 55
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 56
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - AP1
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - AP2
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - AP3
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - AP4
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 57
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 58
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 59
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Emerging Technologies
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 61
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 62
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 63
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Technical Topics: Selecting Efficient Fans
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 65
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Technical Topics: Dual-Capacity Heat Pumps
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 67
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 68
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 69
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - IAQ Applications
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 71
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 72
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 73
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - International Column
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 75
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 76
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 77
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 78
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 79
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 80
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 81
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 82
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 83
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 84
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 85
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Classified Advertising
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 87
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Cover4
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