ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 74

Propane Replacing R-22
By Karin Jahn, Ph.D.

A

ccording to the International Institute of Refrigeration,1 20% of the global warming potential of refrigerating and air-conditioning systems comes from leaks (direct emissions), while 80% results from their energy consumption (indirect emissions). Today’s refrigeration systems consume around 15% of the world’s available electrical energy. Reducing their energy demand would make an important contribution to reducing the threat of global warming. In this context, special importance is attributed to natural refrigerants such as ammonia, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons, which offer high energy efficiency as well as being climateneutral. Expert opinion recognizes ammonia as the most efficient refrigerant. But hydrocarbons such as propane, propene and isobutane also have outstanding thermodynamic properties; refrigerating and air-conditioning systems that run on these refrigerants are particularly energy-efficient. Companies such as Ben & Jerry’s, Pepsi and Unilever use hydrocarbons for refrigeration in their chilling units and freezers. Various tests in the field have confirmed energy savings between 10% and 30% compared to HFC systems. In addition, certain hydrocarbons also can be used as a “dropin solution” for synthetic refrigerants. For example, propane (R-290) and propene (R-1270) have similar thermodynamic behavior to R-22. They use the same technology, which means that many of the existing installed components are compatible. For higher ambient temperatures or higher humidity levels, propane and propene are more efficient than R-22.
Making AC Systems Environment-Friendly

Electric Appliances is using propane to replace R-22 and R410A in new systems. The company is one of the world’s largest manufacturers of room air conditioners with a production output of more than 70 million units a year. The Chinese use R-22 as a standard refrigerant, with China’s air-conditioning systems generating annual HCFC emissions amounting to 260 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, constituting one of China’s largest source of emissions. In 2009, Gree, assisted by the implementing agency GTZ Proklima, started pilot production of room air-conditioning systems based on propane. The quantity of refrigerant ranges from 200 to 350 grams (0.44 to 0.77 lbs) for rated cooling capacities of 2 kW to 4 kW, depending upon the model. Significantly, the air-conditioners have a higher efficiency than R-22 and R-410A models, while requiring a smaller mass of system materials. In addition to the reduced charge size, GTZ Proklima with UK-based consultant Daniel Colbourne, assisted with the safe design of the air conditioners. A production line will turn out 180,000 systems per year. The changeover in refrigerant will save 560,000 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents in direct emissions over the entire service life of the air-conditioning systems. To this should be added a further 320,000 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents in indirect emissions saved by the improved energy efficiency of the systems. For the final consumer, this benefits in terms of lower electricity bills. The best project practice, which is intended to have a rolemodel effect for China’s entire air-conditioning industry and beyond, is being funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety within the framework of the International Climate Initiative based on a decision of the German Federal Parliament.
Delaying the Ripening of Fruit

The Chinese air-conditioning system manufacturer Gree Companies in other industries are also opting for hydrocarbons, such as the British fruit grower Mansfields. The company stores apples and cherries in a controlled atmosphere so that they will be available in top quality year-round regardless of when they were picked. State-of-the-art measuring, control and refrigerating systems monitor temperature, humidity, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, keeping them at the required level to delay the ripening of fruit and vegetables. Mansfields wanted an efficient, HFC-free refrigeration system for the warehouse in Chartham near Canterbury.
	 April	 2010

IMPROVE YOUR PROFITS !
Spirotech, a financially sound, consistently profitable, 15 year old Company near New Delhi, India invite proposals for offshore manufacturing for mechanical components, sub-assemblies and assemblies etc. Proposals for Joint Ventures / Strategic Alliance are also welcome. The Company, has ISO and UL certifications, is a leading manufacturer of copper tube and aluminum fin pack Condensing and Cooling coils for Air conditioning and Refrigeration equipment. It has an efficient management, low cost manufacturing track record and has an excellent brand presence in India, Europe and North America. Over 65% of sales are exports to MNC customers due to international quality and JIT deliveries. It has ambitious plans for rapid growth in both domestic and export markets and has acquired a new 10 acre plant site.
For more information visit www.spirotechindia.in Proposals may kindly be sent to rajesh.khanna@spirotechindia.in

www.info.hotims.com/30303-40

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ASHRAE Journal - April 2010

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - April 2010

ASHRAE Journal - April 2010
Contents
Commentary
Industry News
Letters
Meetings and Shows
Feature Articles
The Science of Evaporation is Key to Defense in Murder Trial
Selecting DOAS Equipment with Reserve Capacity
Technology Award Case Studies: Greening Hospitals
Technology Award Case Studies: Sustainable Remedy for Hospital
Building Sciences
Emerging Technologies
Technical Topics: Selecting Efficient Fans
Technical Topics: Dual-Capacity Heat Pumps
IAQ Applications
International Column
Classified Advertising
Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Intro
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - ASHRAE Journal - April 2010
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 2
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Commentary
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Industry News
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 10
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 16
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Letters
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Meetings and Shows
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - The Science of Evaporation is Key to Defense in Murder Trial
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 26
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Selecting DOAS Equipment with Reserve Capacity
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - BRC1
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - BRC2
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 34
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 38
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Technology Award Case Studies: Greening Hospitals
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 43
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 44
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 45
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 46
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 47
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 48
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 49
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Technology Award Case Studies: Sustainable Remedy for Hospital
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 51
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 52
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Building Sciences
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 55
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 56
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - AP1
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - AP2
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - AP3
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - AP4
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 57
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 58
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 59
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Emerging Technologies
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 61
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 62
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 63
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Technical Topics: Selecting Efficient Fans
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 65
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Technical Topics: Dual-Capacity Heat Pumps
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 67
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 68
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 69
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - IAQ Applications
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 71
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 72
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 73
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - International Column
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 75
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 76
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 77
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 78
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 79
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 80
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 81
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 82
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 83
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 84
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 85
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Classified Advertising
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 87
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Cover4
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