ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 76

The refrigeration experts International Controlled Atmosphere Storage and SRS Frigadon designed a brine system using propene as the primary refrigerant. The system was completed in 2008 with an output of 1,150 kW (327 ton). Five air-cooled factory-assembled packages charged with a total of 90 kg (198 lb) of propene provide cooling capacity for the secondary circuit at a temperature of –9°C (16°F). The special safe design of these chillers and a detailed safety analysis was provided by Re-phridge. A brine mixture of water and salt is used as the secondary refrigerant. The circuit is filled with 30,000 L (7,925 gallons) and works at an operating pressure of only 1.5 bar to cool the heat transfer fluid down to –3°C (27°F). The brine is pumped to the 36 controlled atmosphere cold storage rooms, which are kept at a constant air temperature of –0.5°C and 1.5°C (31°F to 35°F). The secondary refrigerant also cools the preparation and loading areas. The evaporators in

the warehouses are defrosted by offcycle defrost. This entails interrupting the refrigeration process so that the brine absorbs heat from the ambient air, which is used for defrosting. This method prevents the products being cooled from absorbing unnecessary heat and saves energy. The system design minimizes the quantity of refrigerant and guarantees a European Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio of more than 4.2, although based on local conditions the real seasonal cooling coefficient of performance is around 6.
Supporting Biotechnological Research

the refrigeration system, commissioned in 2006, include a plate heat exchanger acting as evaporator, a water-cooled coaxial condenser and a Modbus-based control unit.
As Safe as Refuelling Stations

www.info.hotims.com/30303-20

One important process in the research and production of biotechnological products is freezing and defrosting substances for transport and storage. At the pharmaceuticals company Roche, this takes place in tanks with a volume of 300 L (79 gallon), which are cooled down to –40°C (–40°F) in a cleanroom atmosphere. Here the company wanted an efficient refrigeration system to cope with fast changes in temperature between –50°C and 130°C (–58°F and 266°F) with an accuracy of ±1 K, with automatic drainage and refilling of the tank’s cooling jacket. Furthermore, compliance with the Roche Environment Protection Guidelines restricted the choice of refrigerants to substances that do not damage the ozone layer and the climate. To meet these requirements, Peter Huber Kältemaschinenbau developed a chiller that works with a small charge of 1.8 kg propene. The core element of the system is a two-stage semi-hermetic reciprocating Bitzer compressor, which is designed for use with propene. After being brought down to a temperature between –30°C and –60°C (–22°F and –76°F), the propene then cools the silicone oil circulating in the cooling jacket. The output is 12 kW at a secondary refrigerant outlet temperature of 0°C (32°F), and 6.5 kW at –40°C (–40°F). The safety concept of the system separates the refrigeration circuits into several sections so that in the event of a burst pipe, any refrigerant leak is limited to the affected section rather than the complete charge. Additional components in
	

“The case studies show that nonhalogenated hydrocarbons are suitable for reliable refrigeration in many different branches,” says Monika Witt, chair of eurammon, the European initiative for natural refrigerants. However, certain requirements have to be met when using these substances. Potential sources of ignition have to be identified and eliminated early during the planning phase. The systems have to be designed so as to avoid leaks: this includes reducing the number of joints and applying permanent corrosion protection. As far as possible, the refrigeration system should be installed on the roof or equipped with a gas detection and ventilation system so that the gas can be exhausted in the event of a leak. Components containing refrigerant must be clearly marked as such so that service technicians are informed accordingly and can take corresponding precautions. Good initial and advanced staff training plays a crucial role, as faulty maintenance is one of the greatest risks when operating refrigeration systems with hydrocarbons.” But even if the flammability of hydrocarbons pose the greatest challenge, these substances can still be handled safely, as demonstrated every day in thousands of refuelling stations all over the world.”
References
1. Dupont, J.L. 2007. “Improving energy efficiency in refrigeration.” Presentation at the Regional Ozone Network for Europe and Central Asia, Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.

Karin Jahn, Ph.D., is managing director for eurammon, a joint European initiative of companies, institutions and individuals who advocate an increased use of natural refrigerants.

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ASHRAE Journal - April 2010

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - April 2010

ASHRAE Journal - April 2010
Contents
Commentary
Industry News
Letters
Meetings and Shows
Feature Articles
The Science of Evaporation is Key to Defense in Murder Trial
Selecting DOAS Equipment with Reserve Capacity
Technology Award Case Studies: Greening Hospitals
Technology Award Case Studies: Sustainable Remedy for Hospital
Building Sciences
Emerging Technologies
Technical Topics: Selecting Efficient Fans
Technical Topics: Dual-Capacity Heat Pumps
IAQ Applications
International Column
Classified Advertising
Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Intro
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - ASHRAE Journal - April 2010
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 2
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Commentary
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Industry News
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 10
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 16
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Letters
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Meetings and Shows
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - The Science of Evaporation is Key to Defense in Murder Trial
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 26
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Selecting DOAS Equipment with Reserve Capacity
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - BRC1
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - BRC2
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 34
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 38
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Technology Award Case Studies: Greening Hospitals
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 43
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 44
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 45
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 46
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 47
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 48
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 49
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Technology Award Case Studies: Sustainable Remedy for Hospital
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 51
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 52
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Building Sciences
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 55
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 56
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - AP1
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - AP2
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - AP3
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - AP4
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 57
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 58
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 59
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Emerging Technologies
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 61
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 62
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 63
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Technical Topics: Selecting Efficient Fans
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 65
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Technical Topics: Dual-Capacity Heat Pumps
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 67
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 68
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 69
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - IAQ Applications
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 71
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 72
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 73
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - International Column
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 75
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 76
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 77
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 78
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 79
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 80
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 81
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 82
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 83
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 84
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 85
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Classified Advertising
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - 87
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - April 2010 - Cover4
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