ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 38

be caused by inadequate ventilation would physiological symptoms be observed. Von Pettenkofer did postulate that carbon dioxide concentration could be used as a guide to determine the levels present of the organic substances which are given off by the lungs and body surfaces. He believed these organic substances to be the actual contaminants that caused vitiation of the air. That Von Pettenkofer’s theory gained wide acceptance is witnessed by the following two American publications on the subject of ventilation. In the work Acoustics and Ventilation by Saeltzer,4 published in 1872, the emphasis is placed on the organic impurities as being the actual “poison.” He, too, believed that carbon dioxide exhaled at each breath could be used as a measure of the amount of these organic contaminants. The second publication was probably the most authoritative American work at its time on ventilation design. J.Billings’ Ventilation and Heating5 was written in the last decade of the 19th century and, therefore, it too reflected the widely held human organic exhalation contamination theory. The author points out the “accepted” connection between inadequate ventilation and the prevalence of phthesis (pulmonary tuberculosis). It was Billings’ opinion that 30 cu ft of air is not sufficient for good ventilation if rooms are continuously occupied. Under such circumstances he believed air would become foul and exercise a

very deleterious influence upon the health of the occupants. The occupants would be prone to tuberculosis and unnamed allied diseases if they remained in this environment for any length of time. He also stated that even though some sources may believe that 10 cfm is sufficient ventilation for most applications, he, Billings, disagreed. If areas are to be occupied continuously, 30 cfm is a minimum and 45 cfm, with the possibility of an increase to 60 cfm, is desirable. The rationale behind the higher quantities was arrived at as follows. As previously stated, it was believed that there was a direct relationship between carbon dioxide concentration and organic impurity concentration. Tests showed that if carbon dioxide concentration due to respiration were kept below 200 ppm then the organic impurity concentration, as measured by body odor produced, would remain at a tolerable level. Using 0.6 cfh of carbon dioxide production per person, it would then be a simple matter to determine the fresh air required to maintain a maximum level of 200 ppm carbon dioxide.
.6 cfh CO 2 exhaled (A) cfh fresh air required
6

=

200 106

A=

.6 × 10 200

= 3000 cfh fresh air required

www.info.hotims.com/33861-24

Billings, a physician, believed when dealing with matters of air supply, engineers should endeavor to secure maximum and not minimum quantities. The American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers (ASH&VE), one of ASHRAE’s predecessors organized in 1895, adopted the view that engineers were ready to accept the ideas of hygienists and physiologists. The hygienic and physiological communities had adopted the 30 cfm minimum as being required for adequate ventilation. This necessitated mechanical means, and therefore ventilation was essentially an engineering problem. Consequently, it was the engineers who were held responsible in future years for wasting large sums of money on over-designed ventilating systems. The prevalent thought in hygienic circles at Billings’ time is perhaps best illustrated by his definition of perfect ventilation. He states, “Perfect ventilation can be said to have been secured in an inhabited room only when any and every person in that room takes into his lungs at each respiration air of the same composition as that surrounding the building and no part of which has recently been in his own lungs or of those of his neighbors.” Such a definition is certainly out of step with later discovered facts pertain	 	 February	 2011

38	

ASHRAE	Journal	



ASHRAE Journal - February 2011

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - February 2011

ASHRAE Journal - February 2011
Contents
Commentary
Industry News
Letters
Meetings and Shows
Feature Articles
Thermal Coupling of Cooling and Heating Systems
10 Common Problems in Energy Audits
Hall of Fame Feature: History of the Changing Concepts in Ventilation Requirements
A Guide to Wireless Technologies
Building Sciences
Solar NZEB Project
Emerging Technologies
People
Special Section
InfoCenter
Commissioning
Products
Washington Report
Classified Advertising
Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - ASHRAE Journal - February 2011
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 2
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Commentary
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Industry News
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Letters
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 10
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Meetings and Shows
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Thermal Coupling of Cooling and Heating Systems
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 20
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 22
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 10 Common Problems in Energy Audits
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 30
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Hall of Fame Feature: History of the Changing Concepts in Ventilation Requirements
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 38
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 42
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 43
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - A Guide to Wireless Technologies
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 45
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 46
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 47
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 48
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 49
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Building Sciences
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 51
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 52
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 54
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 55
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 56
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 57
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 58
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 59
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 60
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 61
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Solar NZEB Project
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 63
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 64
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 65
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 66
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 67
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 68
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 69
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Emerging Technologies
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 71
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 72
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 73
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 74
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 75
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - People
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 77
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - InfoCenter
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 79
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 80
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 81
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 82
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 83
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 84
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 85
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Commissioning
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 87
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 88
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 89
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 90
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Products
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Washington Report
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Classified Advertising
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 94
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 95
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Cover4
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