ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 40

ing to the properties required of ventilation air. It was during the last two decades of the 19th century that the relatively high quantities of fresh air requirements were developed and then found their way into certain statutes. These statutes were in effect for many years and, needless to say, large sums of money were wasted on unnecessary ventilation facilities. The turning point in ventilation study began in 1883 when Hermans, in Amsterdam, presented a completely new theory.3 He suggested that it was actually interference with the heat loss process which produced the adverse physiological effects on a human body confined in poorly ventilated quarters. Over 20 years elapsed before the theory was proved in 1905 by Flugge and his pupils Heymann, Paul and Ercklentz at the Institute of Hygiene in Breslau, Germany, and later confirmed by Hill and Haldane in England. Through a series of systematic experiments, these researchers showed con­ clusively that the mechanism of air vitiation was a physical rather than a chemical phenomenon.6 In these experiments a subject was confined in a small chamber which had two separate air supply systems. One system provided air to the chamber itself and the other supplied air directly to the subject. By varying the parameters of both air supply systems, i.e., odor, temperature, moisture and carbon dioxide level, the influence of each could be determined. The effects of these variations, gauged by a team of subjects and observers, showed that excessive temperature was the “con­ taminant” which caused the body to react adversely. Odor played a subordinate role in that it adversely affected the appetites of the subjects. With these findings substantiated, researchers began to ask certain questions pertaining to previously accepted stan­ dards. As mentioned earlier, during the latter portion of the 19th century 30 cfm or more of fresh air was in most cases accepted as required for good ventilation. Why 30 cfm? Would lower quanti­ ties of supply air which would be temperature and humidity controlled provide adequate ventilation? The 30 cfm came into acceptance because, in the judgment of the boards of health in the 1880s, it was thought to be required. It was written into the law in Massachusetts, and it was easy for other states to follow the Massachusetts example. That this standard had gained wide acceptance was exemplified by a model law, proposed by the ASH&VE in 1914, which stated that a positive outdoor supply of fresh air should be equal to or greater than 30 cfm. Grav­ ity supply of fresh air for small schools, not more than eight classrooms, was permitted as long as 30 cfm was supplied. The need for answers to the questions which now arose led researchers to probe deeper into the subject. In 1910, at the urging of the Chicago Dept of Health, a commission was appointed represent­ ing ASH&VE, the Chicago Public School System and the Chicago Health Dept to study the subject of ventilation. In a report issued by the commission in 1914, it was stated that carbon dioxide was not the harmful agent of major importance in expired air but that tem­ perature and humidity were the two most important considerations.7 On the subject of air change requirements, the commission concluded that not less than 30 cfm was required for schoolrooms although there was no evidence produced to substantiate this conclusion. Summing up, the Chicago Commission’s report produced no radical changes in air requirements, but it initiated further exploration on this subject.
40	 ASHRAE	Journal	

The newly discovered physiological aspect of ventilation prompted still further questioning, such as: Was it plausible to use recirculated air? Could air which was drawn from exhaust ducts and then washed and conditioned be sent back into rooms? Professors A.B. Affleck, D.D. Kimball and F. Bass, in independent experiments conducted in 1913, produced results which on the whole were favorable toward the practice of recirculation of air. Although significant progress had been made, there still were many unanswered questions. Providing the answers led to the appointment of the New York State Ventilation Commission of 1913. This body carried out extensive experimentation with respect to school and public building ventilation. The commis­ sion issued its findings in a report, published in 1923. The first part of the report presented the physiological significance of the various factors: heat, moisture and temperature in ventila­ tion; and the second part presented the results achieved by employing various methods for schoolroom ventilation.3 At its publication, this work was the most authoritative and exten­ sive treatise on ventilation produced in the United States. On the subject of air requirements, the New York State Com­ mission concluded as follows: Recirculated air exerts no appre­ ciable harmful influence and the practice of recirculation need not be considered to involve any danger to health or any hindrance to mental progress. Of equal significance, it was concluded that dependable air quantity standards (e.g., 30 cfm) are non­existent. The reason for the latter conclusion is that air quantity by itself is not a reliable gauge of the adequacy of the ventilation. The other variable, air quality, must also be taken into consideration. Despite the conclusions of the New York State Ventilation Com­ mission, in 1925 the laws of 22 states still called for a minimum of 30 cfm of outdoor air or, in other words, mechanical ventilation. During the period following the work carried out by the New York State Ventilation Commission, it became increas­ ingly clear that a new approach should be adopted. C.­E.A. Winslow clearly stated this when he cautioned against any dogmatic approach to ventilation requirements. He, too, rea­ soned that air quality standards were the important consid­ eration, not mechanical standards of air quantity which were assumed would satisfy the necessary air quality standards. Thus, it would appear that each ventilation application would have to be examined for its own particular requirements and then designs tailored to meet these requirements should be provided. This new approach to solve ventilation problems evolved into the “Effective Air Supply Concept.” Briefly stated, this con­ cept required that air supply be tailored to meet each specific application and, as a rule of thumb, provide for 30 cfm with provisions to recirculate up to two­thirds of this supply.8 By the year 1926, no revision had yet been made and most statutes called for a 30 cfm outdoor air requirement. In 1931 a bill to repeal the 30 cfm requirement in New York Statutes was passed by both houses of the State legislature, but the Governor vetoed it. In 1931, School Ventilation Principles and Practices was published.9 This work summarized all the research carried out by the New York State Ventilation Commis­ sion from 1913 to 1923 and supplementary research car­
	 	 February	 2011



ASHRAE Journal - February 2011

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - February 2011

ASHRAE Journal - February 2011
Contents
Commentary
Industry News
Letters
Meetings and Shows
Feature Articles
Thermal Coupling of Cooling and Heating Systems
10 Common Problems in Energy Audits
Hall of Fame Feature: History of the Changing Concepts in Ventilation Requirements
A Guide to Wireless Technologies
Building Sciences
Solar NZEB Project
Emerging Technologies
People
Special Section
InfoCenter
Commissioning
Products
Washington Report
Classified Advertising
Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - ASHRAE Journal - February 2011
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 2
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Commentary
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Industry News
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Letters
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 10
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Meetings and Shows
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Thermal Coupling of Cooling and Heating Systems
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 20
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 22
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 10 Common Problems in Energy Audits
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 30
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Hall of Fame Feature: History of the Changing Concepts in Ventilation Requirements
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 38
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 42
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 43
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - A Guide to Wireless Technologies
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 45
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 46
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 47
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 48
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 49
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Building Sciences
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 51
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 52
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 54
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 55
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 56
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 57
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 58
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 59
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 60
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 61
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Solar NZEB Project
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 63
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 64
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 65
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 66
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 67
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 68
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 69
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Emerging Technologies
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 71
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 72
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 73
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 74
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 75
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - People
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 77
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - InfoCenter
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 79
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 80
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 81
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 82
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 83
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 84
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 85
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Commissioning
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 87
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 88
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 89
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 90
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Products
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Washington Report
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Classified Advertising
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 94
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - 95
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - February 2011 - Cover4
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