ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 72

emerging technologies
Age of Equipment Up to 4 Years 5 to 9 Years 10 to 19 Years 20 Years or More Households Using Major Fuels (Millions) 25 20.1 24.2 20.5 Major Fuel ($Billion) 12.14 9.75 13.37 12.61 Natural Gas ($Billion) 6.25 5.37 7.56 7.4 Electricity ($Billion) 1.8 1.45 1.66 1.39 Fuel Oil ($Billion) 1.97 1.09 2.38 3.2

table 6: Heating cost by fuel type.24 As can be seen from case studies, any home using natural gas and electricity has the potential to save at least 50% of their current utility costs as a result of a superinsulation retrofit. The major barrier to market for superinsulated construction is its current cost over incremental retrofits (Table 4), and the resulting long payback period. The technologies and know-how are already widespread in the market as they are merely combinations of existing techniques used in concert to achieve higher insulating values. As higher R-value products enter the market at lower costs, and as government policies continue to push for more energy efficient buildings the superinsulated house will become more prevalent on the market.
Air Conditioning Characteristics (Million U.S. Housing Units)‡

Housing Units With Cooling Equipment Central System AC Window/Wall Units
‡

93.3§ 65.9 28.9

Out of a total of 111.1 million U.S. housing units of all types in 2005.

§ 1.5 million housing units reported having both central and window/wall air conditioners.

table 7: Housing units with cooling equipment or AC.25
16. LowEnergyHouse.com. “Low energy house—Aerogel Insulation —Aerogel.” 2011. http://tinyurl.com/aerogel-ins. 17. LowEnergyHouse.com. “Low Energy House—Sheeps wool insulation—sustainable Insulation.” 2011. http://tinyurl.com/ sheepswool-ins. 18. Tiffany, S. 2006. “The superinsulated house.” Gather.com. http:// tinyurl.com/tiffany-2006. 19. Pettit, B. 2009. “Deep energy retrofit of a Sears Roebuck house: A home for the next 100 years.” High Performing Buildings 2(2):50 – 63. http://tinyurl.com/pettit-2009. 20. Environmental Design and Construction. 2009. “Super-insulated retrofit home under construction in MA.” http://tinyurl.com/retrofit-home. 21. Pettit, B. 2009. “Cold Climate: Concord Four Square Retrofit.” Buildingscienceconsulting.com. http://tinyurl.com/pettitb-2009. 22. U.S. Energy Information Administration. 2011. “What’s new in our home energy use?” http://tinyurl.com/whatsnew-energy. 23. U.S. Energy Information Administration. 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Table HC2004, Space Heating Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units. http://tinyurl.com/tablehc2-4. 24. U.S. Energy Information Administration. 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Table SH2, Total Households by Space Heating Fuels Used, 2005 Million U.S. Households. http:// tinyurl.com/tablesh2. 25. U.S. Energy Information Administration. 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Table HC2.6, Air Conditioning Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units. http://tinyurl.com/tablehc2-6.

references
1. Vann, J. 2008. “Super insulated homes.” http://greendesignbuild. net/SuperInsulatedHomes.aspx. 2. Parks, L.J. 2008. “Home designs.” Utah State University. http:// extension.usu.edu/files/publications/publication/HI_20.pdf. 3. Wotsak, R. 2010. “Superinsulation can’t work if the windows leak.” http://tinyurl.com/cant-work-if. 4. LowEnergyHouse.com. 2011. “Low Energy House—Superinsulation.” http://tinyurl.com/low-energy-house. 5. ColoradoENERGY.org. 2010. “R-Value Table: Insulation Values For Selected Materials.” http://tinyurl.com/RValues-Materials. 6. U.S. DOE. 2011. “Blanket (batt and roll) insulation.” http:// tinyurl.com/Batt-Roll. 7. BuildingGreen Inc. 2009. “Mineral wool residential and commercial insulation.” http://tinyurl.com/mineral-wool. 8. Zero by Degrees LLC. 2009. “How Much Does Insulation Cost?” http://www.insulation-guide.com/insulation-cost.html. 9. U.S. DOE. 2011. “Polystyrene insulation materials.” http://tinyurl. com/polystyrene-ins. 10. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 2010. National Residential Efficiency Measures Database. http://tinyurl.com/measures-db. 11. U.S. DOE. 2011. “Polyurethane insulation materials.” http:// tinyurl.com/polyurethane-ins. 12. Green Builder Supply. 2009. “Sheep wool: warmer, safer, smarter, green sustainable!” http://tinyurl.com/sheepwool. 13. U.S. DOE. 2011. “Fiberglass insulation material.” http://tinyurl. com/fiberglass-ins. 14. LowEnergyHouse.com. 2011. “Low energy house—Cellulose insulation—Cellulose fibre.” http://tinyurl.com/cellulose-ins. 15. U.S. DOE. 2011. “Mineral Wool Insulation Material.” http:// tinyurl.com/mineralwool-ins. 72 ASHRAE Journal

Alissa Cooperman is a technologist and John Dieckmann is a director in the Mechanical Systems Group of TIAX LLC, Cambridge, Mass. James Brodrick, Ph.D., is a project manager with the Building Technologies Program, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.
ashrae.org August 2011



ASHRAE Journal - August 2011

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - August 2011

ASHRAE Journal - August 2011
Contents
Commentary
Industry News
Letters
Meetings and Shows
Feature Articles
2011–12 Presidential Address: Sustaining ASHRAE Through Leadership
Retrocommissioning Older Buildings
Liquid Refrigerant Pumping in Industrial Refrigeration Systems
Technology Award Case Studies:
Hospital Upgrade: Heat Recovery, Geothermal Save Energy
Cool Weather Savings: Using Hybrid Refrigeration Systems for Chiller Retrofit
Special Section
InfoCenter
Standing Columns
Solar NZEB Project
Emerging Technologies
Special Products
IAQ Applications
Washington Report
People
Products
Classified Advertising
Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Intro
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - ASHRAE Journal - August 2011
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 2
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Commentary
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Industry News
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Letters
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Meetings and Shows
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 2011–12 Presidential Address: Sustaining ASHRAE Through Leadership
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 20
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 22
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Retrocommissioning Older Buildings
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 30
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 34
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Liquid Refrigerant Pumping in Industrial Refrigeration Systems
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 38
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 42
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 43
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Hospital Upgrade: Heat Recovery, Geothermal Save Energy
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 45
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 46
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 47
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Cool Weather Savings: Using Hybrid Refrigeration Systems for Chiller Retrofit
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 49
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 50
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 51
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - InfoCenter
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 54
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 55
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 56
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 57
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 58
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 59
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 60
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Solar NZEB Project
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 62
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 63
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 64
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 65
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Emerging Technologies
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 67
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 68
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 69
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 70
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 71
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 72
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 73
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 74
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Special Products
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - IAQ Applications
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 77
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 78
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 79
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Washington Report
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 81
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - People
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 83
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Products
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 85
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Classified Advertising
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - 87
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - August 2011 - Cover4
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