ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 38

Principles of Design
A number of design principles have been identified over many projects and 15 years of experience with this system. When these principles are implemented, the system is very reliable and adaptable to different operating regimes. Most importantly, because the system relies upon floor temperature variation within a very narrow range adjacent to the comfort zone, precise modulation of floor temperature is not required for comfort maintenance.7 Second, the system has a high thermal capacitance, so control sequences should avoid any requirements for rapid modulation. Third, the DOAS and the floor system operate independently, so their control sequences must be coordinated to avoid “fighting.” Finally, in humid climates, the system must be designed to avoid condensation on the floor surface under any circumstance. The previous design principles are implemented through a combination of system physical layout and control sequences.

Whether you are an HVAC&R system designer, architect, building owner, building manager/operator, or contractor who is charged with designing a green building, the ASHRAE GreenGuide aims to help you answer your biggest question—“What do I do now?” Using an integrated, building systems perspective, the ASHRAE GreenGuide covers the need-to-know information on what to do, where to turn, what to suggest, and how to interact with other members of the design team in a productive way. Information is provided on each stage of the building process, from planning to operation and maintenance of a facility, with emphasis on teamwork and close coordination among interested parties. This third edition of the ASHRAE GreenGuide is meant to be an easy-to-use reference with information on almost any subject that should be considered in green-building design. The GreenTips found throughout this edition highlight techniques, processes, measures, or special systems in a concise, often bulleted, format. Also, information is provided in dual units—Inch-Pound (I-P) and International System (SI)—so that the content is easily applicable worldwide. References and resources mentioned are listed at the end of each chapter for easy access. In this edition, you’ll find the following new information:

Photo 2: Interior of study room at Fahey-McLane Hall at Dart• Guidelines on sustainable energy master planning mouth College. Updates on teaming strategies Example of Bâtiment Isothermale construction. •
and is maintained by keeping the floor/ceiling (20°C). Comfort operational decisions • Strategies for greening slab at the setpoint, with no existing buildings air thermostats in the spaces. The • Updates on newly developed green-building rating systems and standards slab setpoint isAdditional information on building energy modeling and follow-up measurement determined as a function of the temperature • on the exteriorand verification of the interior drywall finish of the surface • Compliance exterior building wallstrategies for key ASHRAE standards for that building exposure. • A new chapter on water efficiency The floor finish GreenTips, including those featuring green strategies for chilled-water plant • New is a dense indoor-outdoor carpet with an effective thermaland boiler plant design 0.75 ft2·h·°F/Btu (0.13 m2·K/W). resistance of While this thermal resistance is minimally acceptable for the system, the active ceiling below enhances thermal coupling to the rooms. The acoustic benefit of the carpet more than outweighs the slight thermal disadvantage. A typical study room on the top floor in one of the dormitories is shown in ISBN: 978-1-933742-85-4 Photo 2. TheAmerican Society of Heating, Refrigerating and image shows the dense carpet floor finish and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ceiling-mountedTullie Circle panels that were added to the ceiling 1791 radiant Atlanta, GA 30329-2305 to provide the capacity that would have been furnished by the 9 781933 74285 4 404.636.8400 (worldwide) Product code: 90324 11/10 floor slab above a middle floor. www.ashrae.org The buildings have operable windows and because the overheated period is so short in Hanover, N.H., heating/ cooling changeover is manual. The building is in nominal heating mode between mid-September and mid-June, depending upon actual weather forecasts. Typically, cooling requirements during those periods can be met by opening the windows. The buildings have minimal occupancy for several days between the normal academic term and the summer session, and manual changeover is accomplished during that period. The client expressed concern that windows left open during the cooling season might cause condensation because of excessive infiltration of humid air. Examination of this potential danger reveals that the danger for wet carpets is far greater from rain penetration through open windows than from condensation. Multiple studies and CFD analyses examined whether keeping the slab and ceiling temperatures at a specific setpoint would keep the space at a comfortable temperature. The CFD studies incorporated all of the interior contents of the space including furniture, appliances and even occupants. All of these have a significant impact on the air cirGreen Guide Cover.indd 1

• Information on how issues related to carbon emissions affect building design

Bâtiment Isotherme
Bâtiment isotherme refers to a design strategy developed in Europe that uses a super-insulated envelope in concert with controlled interior thermal mass to create constant comfort conditions with a minimum expenditure of energy.8 Three dormitory buildings at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire illustrate the successful implementation of this strategy. These buildings use concrete block bearing wall internal partitions perpendicular to the exterior façade of the building with pre-cast plank horizontal structure and concrete topping slab with embedded radiant tubing. The floor sandwich does not incorporate an insulation layer, so that water flow in the tubing affects the surface temperature of the floor above and of the ceiling below. The wall construction incorporates a continuous air barrier, R25 (4.4 m2·K/W) insulation underneath brick veneer. Windows are single-hung woodframed with triple-glazed low-e argon-filled fixed upper lights and double-glazed low-e argon filled lower operable lights. Attic insulation is R40 (7.0 m2·K/W). The conditioning system consists of dedicated outdoor air systems with enthalpy wheels, heating and cooling coils and the thermally active structure. Each student room is ventilated at approximately 30 cfm (14.2 L/s). Demand controlled ventilation is provided to living and study rooms, complying with ASHRAE Standard 62.1-1999 by maintaining 480 ppm concentration differential between the room air and the outside air. Ventilation supply air is chilled to 54°F (12.2°C) when outdoor air dew point temperature exceeds that level. At other times, the ventilation supply air is tempered to 68°F
38 ASHRAE Journal

ashrae.org

January 2013

©Jeff Totaro, Atkins Olshin Schade Architects

ing the floor system and the DOAS from separate heating and cooling sources, reflecting the different temperature requirements for the two systems. In arid or continental climates, the required chilled water temperature for the radiant floor system can often be met through evaporative cooing, even with cooling tower economizer cycle, resulting in significant energy savings through avoidance of refrigeration energy.6



ASHRAE Journal - January 2013

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - January 2013

ASHRAE Journal - January 2013
Contents
Commentary
Industry News
Letters
Meetings and Shows
Feature Articles
Long-Term Commercial GSHP Performance: Part 6: Maintenance and Controls
Thermally Active Floors, Part 1
Technology Award Case Studies:
Aquathermal Systems
Standing Columns
Data Centers
People
Emerging Technologies
IAQ Applications
Engineer's Notebook
Washington Report
Refrigeration Applications
Classified Advertising
Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - ASHRAE Journal - January 2013
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 2
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - Commentary
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - Industry News
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 10
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - Letters
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - Meetings and Shows
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 20
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 22
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - Long-Term Commercial GSHP Performance: Part 6: Maintenance and Controls
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 26
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 30
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - Thermally Active Floors, Part 1
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 34
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 38
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 42
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 43
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 44
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 45
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 46
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 47
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - Aquathermal Systems
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 49
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 50
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 51
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 52
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 54
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 55
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 56
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 57
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 58
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 59
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 60
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - Data Centers
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 62
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 63
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - People
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - Emerging Technologies
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 66
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 67
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - IAQ Applications
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 69
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 70
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 71
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - Engineer's Notebook
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 73
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 74
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 75
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - Washington Report
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - Refrigeration Applications
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - Classified Advertising
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - 80
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - January 2013 - Cover4
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_KTUZMA
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_ABEDGD
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201909
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2019septmeber_v2
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2019september
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201908
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201907
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201906
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201905
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201904
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_2019april
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201903
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_2019march
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201902
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201901
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_showguide2019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_2018december
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_2018november
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2018fall_v2
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2018fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_2018october
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraemexico_2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201810
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraeinsights_201806
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201805
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201804
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201803
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201712
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201711
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201710
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2017fall_v2
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2017fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201709
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201705
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashrae_meetinginsert_201610
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2016fall_v2
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2016fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_acrexindia
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2015summer_v2
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2015summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/amca/2014summer2
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/amca/2014summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_acma_2014summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201311
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201309
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_acmasupp_2013fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201305
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201303
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/pubcatalog_2013winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201211
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/achr_expo_mexico2012
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201209
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201208_v3
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201208_v2
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/pubcatalog_2012summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201205
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201203
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/pubcatalog_2012winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201111_v2
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201109_v2
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/pubcatalog_2011summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201105
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201103
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com