ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 34

Characteristics of Successful GSHP Engineering Design Firms
•	 The engineering firm performs all system design (including the ground loop and HVAC controls) and is open to
feedback for suggested modifications that benefit the
owner and building occupants.
•	 In situations where a firm has designed several buildings
for an owner, the engineer(s) regularly communicates
with maintenance supervisors and staff (and is not afraid
to enter their breakroom at lunch).
•	 In situations where a firm has designed a single building
for an owner, the owner regularly refers the engineer(s)
because of the quality of the work product.
•	 The engineering firm is familiar with the capabilities of
the local the ground loop and mechanical contractors
and the corresponding level of monitoring to ensure
systems are installed as designed.
•	 The engineering firm has a basic understanding of local
geology, ground water regulations, drilling techniques,
and ground circuit header assembly. The firm provides
designs that are sensitive to the resulting constraints and

pumps at conditions experienced in the field
would demonstrate the actual economic value
of “40 EER” heat pumps rated using current
standards.

Acknowledgments

•	 The engineering firm tracks, maintains, and openly
shares records of mechanical and ground loop costs.
Contractors and subcontractors are encouraged (or
possibly required) to submit itemized bids to identify
components or designs that are not good value.
•	 They allow occupant and maintenance satisfaction surveys to be conducted and review results and comments
to improve quality.
•	 The engineering firm oversees their design through
construction and performs system commissioning as an
included service rather than a separate line item in their
fee proposals, which might be eliminated by a client.

9
8

Ratings Do Not
Include Impact
of Loop Fan and
Pump Power

31

24

7
6

17

5

Rated EER (Btu/W·h)

To not put water source heat pumps at a marketing disadvantage, the standard for air-source
SEER/HSPF (ANSI/AHRI/ASHRAE 210/240)
should simultaneously be revised since it also includes ratings conditions that provide unreasonably optimistic efficiencies.6

•	 Because ENERGY STAR rating (unlike LEED) is based on
measured energy performance, requires minimal paperwork, uses information routinely provided by the utilities, is relatively simple and inexpensive, the engineering
firm maintains a listing of ratings for completed projects.

10

Rated COP

Standard 210/240

are, therefore, respected by ground loop contractors
(who typically do not hold engineers in high regard).

3T-VS EER
3T-DC EER
3T-CS EER
3T-VS COP
3T-DC COP
3T-CS COP

4
3
30

40

50

60

70

80

90

10

Entering Water Temperature (°F)

The project was made possible with a tailored collaboration through the Electric Power Figure 2: COP and EER comparison of high efficiency, 3 ton (10.6 kW) variResearch Institute (EPRI), with the Southern able speed, dual capacity, and constant speed water-to-air heat pumps.9
Company (SoCo) and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) providing the funding. Project direction and Air and Brine-to-Air Heat Pumps—Testing and Rating for Performance.
collaboration were provided by Ron Domitrovic (EPRI), Da5. Kavanaugh, S.P. 2010. “Dual-capacity heat pumps.” ASHRAE
vid Dinse (TVA), and Chris Gray (SoCo).
Journal 52(4).

References
1. Hinge, A.W., D.J. Winston. 2009. “Documenting Performance.”
High Performing Buildings. Winter.
2. EPA. 2012. ENERGY STAR Target Finder. http://tinyurl.com/
bhzklza.
3. Boldt, J. 2012. “How 90.1-2010 will affect health-care facilities.”
ASHRAE Journal 54(8).
4. ANSI/AHRI/ASHRAE/ISO Standard 13256-1-1998, Water-to34

ASHRAE Journal

6. Kavanaugh, S.P. 2002. “Limitations of SEER for measuring efficiency.” ASHRAE Journal 44(7).
7. 2011 ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Applications. Chapter 34,
Geothermal Energy, Table 9, p. 34.19.
8. CPFC. 2012. Plastics: Technical and Installation Manual. p. 73.
Charlotte, N.C.: Charlotte Pipe Company and Foundry.
9. WFI. 2012. http://www.waterfurnace.com/literature/7series/
SC2700AN.pdf (page 6) and http://www.waterfurnace.com/
literature/5series/SC2500AN.pdf (page 6).
ashrae.org

February 2013



ASHRAE Journal - February 2013

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - February 2013

Contents
Commentary
Industry News
Letters
Meetings and Shows
Feature Articles
R-22 Hard Act to Follow: Ammonia Low-Pressure Receiver Systems
Long-Term Commercial GSHP Performance: Part 7: Achieving Quality
Thermally Active Floors: Part 2: Design
Future of DCV for Commercial Kitchens
Standing Columns and Special Sections
Building Sciences
Emerging Technologies
ACREX India 2013 Show Guide
Refrigeration Applications
InfoCenter
Data Centers
IAQ Applications
Special Products
Classified Advertising
Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Intro
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Cover1
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 2
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Commentary
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Industry News
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 10
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Letters
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Meetings and Shows
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - R-22 Hard Act to Follow: Ammonia Low-Pressure Receiver Systems
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 18
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 20
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 22
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Long-Term Commercial GSHP Performance: Part 7: Achieving Quality
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 30
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 34
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Thermally Active Floors: Part 2: Design
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 38
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 42
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 43
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 44
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 45
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 46
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 47
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Future of DCV for Commercial Kitchens
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 49
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 50
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 51
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 52
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 54
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 55
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Building Sciences
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 57
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 58
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 59
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 60
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 61
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 62
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Emerging Technologies
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 64
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - ACREX India 2013 Show Guide
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 64b
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S1
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S2
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S3
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S4
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S5
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S6
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S7
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S8
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S9
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S10
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S11
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S12
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S13
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S14
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S15
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S16
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S17
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S18
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S19
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S20
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S21
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - S22
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Refrigeration Applications
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - InfoCenter
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 67
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 68
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 69
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 70
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 71
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Data Centers
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 73
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 74
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - IAQ Applications
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 76
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - 77
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Special Products
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Classified Advertising
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - February 2013 - Cover4
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