ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 38

2013 Technology Award Case Studies
of the heating system. This design allows for the
Biodôme to fully meet the needs for heating and
cooling year-round using the heat pumps and
eliminating the use of steam.

Year
Monitored

Amount
Saved

Savings

Electricity (kWh)

20,417,631

18,014,152

2,403,479

11.8%

Electricity (kW)

Summer Heat Recovery

Adjusted
Base Year

4,324

3134

1,190

28%

Steam (mlb)

25,702,000

0

25,702,000

100%

The marine and polar zones are mechanically
Chilled water (mBtu)
34,834,244
0
34,834,244
100%
cooled year-round by the heat pumps for cooling
purposes and dehumidification. The energy recovTotal energy (GJ)
144,118
64,850
79,268
55%
ered is used for reheating and processes. During
Table 1: Energy savings of base year and monitored year compared.
summer, the cooling capacity is more than sufficient to provide most of the building’s heating.
Note that the Tropical Rainforest requires heating most of the
For the Sub-Polar Regions alone, the lighting demand and
year. The surplus energy is discharged by the heat pumps into consumption were both reduced by 75%. Existing lighting was
the main exhaust air system, in a cooling tower, as well as in completely converted to new T5 HO tube fixtures. In the three
the geothermal open loop system.
other ecosystems, the new lighting system allows a better adjustment of light intensity according to the amount of natuWinter Heat Recovery
ral sunlight from the glass roof. This was made possible by a
The building’s peripheral heating was previously provided by combination of new 1,000 W high pressure sodium and metal
electric baseboards and electric coils through the ventilation. It halide lamps that meet the needs of particular plants and aniis now provided by the glycol-water mixture in addition to heat mal biological cycles. New ballasts were also installed away
recovered by the heat pumps. In winter, the warm water-glycol from the ecosystems and sunlight, which reduced premature
mixture flows through the ventilation air-conditioning coils. aging of ballasts that used to buzz and disturb the peace and
The heating is largely provided by the ventilation. The electric quietness of the ecosystems. The placement of the fixtures was
baseboards, although retained, are used much less.
modified to avoid light loss in the structure.
The heating capacity of the heat pumps depends directly on
In administrative and offices spaces, all T12 tubes and magthe building cooling load. During winter, capacity decreases; netic ballasts were replaced with high-efficiency low factor
some alternatives had to be developed to maximize the pro- ballasts and 28 W T8 tubes. Therefore, this point meets Secduction of hot water by the heat pumps.
tion 6.6.5.4 of Standard 100.
The natural cooling of many ventilation systems (using cold
outside air) was reduced in favor of mechanical cooling. Air- Optimization of Fans and Pumps
conditioning coils (heat recovery) were installed in the comThirty-six fan and 19 pump motors have been replaced by
mon exhaust duct of several ventilation systems. These sys- high efficiency motors. A number of motors were resized, detems discharge between 50,000 and 80,000 cfm (23 597 and pending on the load they carried, as stipulated in Section 7.5.2
37 755 L/s) of hot air. Any shortfall is compensated by heat of Standard 100. They are powered by variable frequency drives.
from the open-loop ground-source heat pumps.
Fan speed is adjusted according to each ecosystem’s unique
schedule and temperature setpoint. The fresh air supply in cerOpen-Loop Ground-Source Heat Pump System
tain sectors such as the Tropical Rainforest is controlled by
The Biodôme uses one of the biggest open-loop ground- CO2 sensors.
source heat pump systems in Canada, with water drawn from
the underground water some 98 ft (30 m) below the building at a Energy Savings
rate of 720,000 gallons/day (2 725 495 L/day). Depending on the
The Biodôme now consumes only electricity. The building’s
time of the year, the system meets heating and cooling needs that energy intensity decreased from 367.15 Btu/ft2 to 164.62 Btu/
the heat recovery system cannot meet alone. During the summer, ft2 (4170 kJ/m2 to 1870 kJ/m2) (calculated using gross area),
it is possible to transfer the heat from the heat pumps to the un- representing a 55% reduction in energy consumption.
derground water and store the heat for the heating season.

Optimized Lighting
Despite the Biodôme’s impressive fenestrated roof, artificial lighting is essential. Lighting greatly affects the quality of
life for residents of ecosystems. Adequate lighting levels are
specified by the institution botanists and zoologists, as specifically mentioned in Section 6.6.2 of Standard 100.
Optimization of ecosystem lighting cut associated electric
demand from 1,070 kW to 489 kW.
38

ASHRAE Journal

Conclusions

Although this building is filled with unique characteristics
and living collections, the principles of technological innovation could be applied to almost any large building. This case
is a good example of an approach that aligns the interests of
industry professionals to those of the clients: it stimulated teamwork, innovation and exceptional results. Most importantly, this
case demonstrates clearly that projects to reduce greenhouse
gas emissions can also be very profitable for building owners.
ashrae.org

April 2013



ASHRAE Journal - April 2013

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - April 2013

ASHRAE Journal - April 2013
Contents
Commentary
Industry News
Letters
Meetings and Shows
Feature Articles
Ground-Coupled Heat Pump and Energy Storage
Fan Efficiency Requirements for Standard 90.1-2013
Technology Award Case Studies:
Geothermal for 5 Ecosystems
Holistic HVAC Design
Standing Columns
Engineer’s Notebook
Data Centers
Emerging Technologies
IAQ Applications
Refrigeration Applications
Special Products
People
International Column
Energy Modeling
Products
Classified Advertising
Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - ASHRAE Journal - April 2013
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 2
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - Commentary
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - Industry News
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - Letters
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - Meetings and Shows
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - Ground-Coupled Heat Pump and Energy Storage
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 16
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - I1
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - I2
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - I3
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - I4
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 18
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 20
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 22
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - Fan Efficiency Requirements for Standard 90.1-2013
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 26
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 30
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - Geothermal for 5 Ecosystems
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 34
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 38
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - Holistic HVAC Design
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 42
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 43
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 44
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 45
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 46
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 47
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - Engineer’s Notebook
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 49
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ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - Data Centers
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 55
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ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 58
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 59
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - Emerging Technologies
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 61
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ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 63
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - IAQ Applications
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 65
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 66
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - Refrigeration Applications
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - Special Products
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - People
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - International Column
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 71
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - Energy Modeling
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 73
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - Products
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 75
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 76
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 77
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - 78
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - Classified Advertising
ASHRAE Journal - April 2013 - Advertisers Index
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