Clean Run - November 2017 - 17

If a pattern of ETOs is suspected, a comprehensive physical
exam, preferably performed by a veterinarian who specializes
in sports medicine, is indicated to rule out health problems.
Through the ACVSMR1, you should be able to locate a specialist in your area. It is always important to check the dog's overall health when any jumping problem occurs (added strides,
knocked bars, change in style, refusals, and so on). The exam
should include all systems of the body, as well as a neuro
check. Based on the history and physical exam, additional testing may be indicated. For example, if your dog has been weak
and lethargic, blood may be drawn for analysis. Thyroid testing
may be indicated. If your dog is taking any medications or supplements regularly, be sure your veterinarian is aware of these.
If the history and physical exam are normal (other than a history of ETOs), a thorough eye exam to detect ocular abnormalities or disease should be performed by an ACVO2 boardcertified veterinary ophthalmologist. Abnormalities of the eye,
including the cornea, lens, retina, and so on, can be found on
a thorough eye exam. Any of these can potentially affect vision and result in ETOs. If an abnormality is found, it may be
treatable. However, most dogs with ETOs will have a "normal" eye
exam. A normal exam simply indicates there are no clinically detectable abnormalities of the eye that could affect vision; it does
not mean the dog's vision is normal. (Note: Screening tests such
as CERF and CAER3 exams alone do not test the dog's actual
visual capability.)
To detect vision problems, more tests are necessary. Unfortunately, eye charts and other more elaborate eye testing for humans are not currently available for dogs. There are, however, a
few tests typically performed on humans that can be used for
dogs. The main tests used to identify risk factors for ETOs are
1) retinoscopy to test for refractive errors, myopia, and astigmatism in particular; and 2) tests for binocular alignment such as
the Hirschberg Test and the Brückner Test. Retinoscopy can be

1.

ACVSMR stands for American College of Veterinary Sports
Medicine and Rehabilitation (www. http://vsmr.org). A
resource to locate a board-certified veterinarian with an
expertise in the structural, physiological, medical, and surgical
needs of dogs and the restoration of normal form and
function after injury or illness.

2.

ACVO stands for American College of Veterinary
Ophthalmologists (www.acvo.org). A resource to locate a
board-certified veterinarian with an expertise in diseases of
the eye in dogs.

3.

CERF stands for Canine Eye Registry Foundation. CAER stands
for OFA Canine Eye Certification Registry. A CERF or CAER
exam is a screening test for the presence of observable genetic
abnormalities. It is not a comprehensive ocular exam nor does
it evaluate vision.

4.

COVD stands for College of Optometrists in Vision
Development (www.covd.org). A resource to locate a
developmental optometrist.

November 17 | Clean Run

performed by a veterinary ophthalmologist if he is trained in
the method and has the required equipment. Both retinoscopy
and the binocular alignment tests can be performed on your
dog by a developmental (pediatric) optometrist. Developmental optometrists specialize in these tests and should be able to
perform them on your dog. Through the COVD4, you should be
able to locate one in your area for a consultation. See Figure 12.
Problems revealed by these exams that have thus far been associated with ETOs and are therefore considered risk factors
include: refractive error (near-sightedness/myopia, far-sightedness/hyperopia, unequal refractive error/anisometropia, astigmatism), and strabismus especially unilateral or alternating
(eye misalignment such as exotropia/wall-eyed and esotopia/
cross-eyed).
Even if eye disease, refraction error, and alignment problems have
been ruled out, it does not mean the dog's vision is normal. Despite the progress we've made detecting potential causes of
ETOs, in some dogs the testing currently available may fail to
determine the specific reason for the vision impairment. There
are many aspects of visual function required for successful
performance. Specific tests to evaluate visual information processing in humans are not yet available in dogs. At this time,
further research is needed to determine how to test visual processing skills in dogs and determine how they relate to ETOs.

JUMP RETRAININg
If it is determined that your dog is misjudging his takeoff distances due to vision impairment, whether or not a specific
cause has been identified, attempts to "retrain" his jumping are
not advised. Instead, spend your training sessions building your
dog's confidence and performing short sequences to experiment with different handling to see which benefits your dog
the most. Jumps are ideally kept chest height or lower and the
dog should be supported over the jumps with handling.
12

© krissy Day

Dr. Gina Day doing retinoscopy on a dog. Testing a performance dog
is often easier than retinoscopy on a toddler; no drops are necessary
and most of the dogs will hold still for treats or a toy.
17


http://www.vsmr.org http://www.acvo.org http://www.covd.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Clean Run - November 2017

Contents
Clean Run - November 2017 - Cover1
Clean Run - November 2017 - Cover2
Clean Run - November 2017 - Contents
Clean Run - November 2017 - 4
Clean Run - November 2017 - 5
Clean Run - November 2017 - 6
Clean Run - November 2017 - 7
Clean Run - November 2017 - 8
Clean Run - November 2017 - 9
Clean Run - November 2017 - 10
Clean Run - November 2017 - 11
Clean Run - November 2017 - 12
Clean Run - November 2017 - 13
Clean Run - November 2017 - 14
Clean Run - November 2017 - 15
Clean Run - November 2017 - 16
Clean Run - November 2017 - 17
Clean Run - November 2017 - 18
Clean Run - November 2017 - 19
Clean Run - November 2017 - 20
Clean Run - November 2017 - 21
Clean Run - November 2017 - 22
Clean Run - November 2017 - 23
Clean Run - November 2017 - 24
Clean Run - November 2017 - 25
Clean Run - November 2017 - 26
Clean Run - November 2017 - 27
Clean Run - November 2017 - 28
Clean Run - November 2017 - 29
Clean Run - November 2017 - 30
Clean Run - November 2017 - 31
Clean Run - November 2017 - 32
Clean Run - November 2017 - 33
Clean Run - November 2017 - 34
Clean Run - November 2017 - 35
Clean Run - November 2017 - 36
Clean Run - November 2017 - 37
Clean Run - November 2017 - 38
Clean Run - November 2017 - 39
Clean Run - November 2017 - 40
Clean Run - November 2017 - 41
Clean Run - November 2017 - 42
Clean Run - November 2017 - 43
Clean Run - November 2017 - 44
Clean Run - November 2017 - 45
Clean Run - November 2017 - 46
Clean Run - November 2017 - 47
Clean Run - November 2017 - 48
Clean Run - November 2017 - 49
Clean Run - November 2017 - 50
Clean Run - November 2017 - 51
Clean Run - November 2017 - 52
Clean Run - November 2017 - 53
Clean Run - November 2017 - 54
Clean Run - November 2017 - 55
Clean Run - November 2017 - 56
Clean Run - November 2017 - 57
Clean Run - November 2017 - 58
Clean Run - November 2017 - 59
Clean Run - November 2017 - 60
Clean Run - November 2017 - 61
Clean Run - November 2017 - 62
Clean Run - November 2017 - 63
Clean Run - November 2017 - 64
Clean Run - November 2017 - 65
Clean Run - November 2017 - 66
Clean Run - November 2017 - Cover3
Clean Run - November 2017 - Cover4
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