Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 14

Central Candela (candlepower) Required
Illumination desired-Footcandles
75
50

Distance
Feet
10
20
30
40
50

2,500
10,000
22,500
40,000
62,500

5,000
20,000
45,000
80,000
125,000

7,500
30,000
67,500
120,000
187,500

10,000
40,000
90,000
160,000
250,000

60
70
80
90
100

90,000
122,500
160,000
202,500
250,000

180,000
245,000
320,000
405,000
500,000

270,000
367,500
480,000
607,500
750,000

360,000
490,000
640,000
810,000
1,000,000

25

100

6. An additional concern of growing prominence is the distribution of intensity across the field. The present "advertising
battle" is centered about this consideration. One company
advertises, "Brightest-Sharpest" and another counters with,
"We've Seen the Light" and compares beam and field angles
claiming, "a larger, more useful beam." Thus arises the necessity of determining which kind of distribution is best for
you. Will it be measured by the "hottest" center? By the
widest spread? By the greatest efficiency? By the smoothest
field? Or by some other consideration as size or appearance?
There seems to be some consistency among professional
designers that, when the stage is illuminated as a whole,
(differentiated from individual spotted areas) that the actor's
face should have uniform intensity as he walks across the
stage.
Many schemes of distribution will provide illumination patterns which may be overlapped to give uniformity. A triangular pattern grading from maximum intensity at the center
smoothly to a minimum at the edge would be additively uniform if overlapped by 50 percent of the diameter. The size of
incandescent filaments prevents the designer from achieving
this type of distribution and a 50 percent overlap is excessive.
The rounding of the curve of distribution t~at results from the
entire optical train leads to a form of illumination curve that
may be termed "cosine illumination." With uniform degrees
plotted along the x axis from 0° to 90°, the cosines of those
angles are plotted as the values of y.
These angles and cosines represent an arbitrary distribution of intensity within the total illuminated circle-they should
not be confused with the angles of the distribution curve.

Note that the median intensity is 47 footcandles and the
variation is _ 3-quite a smooth field. Note, also, that the
overlap occurs at the point defining the beam.
Recent advertising has emphasized a variable lamp position, by means of which the distribution of intensity across the
field may be varied. It provides a range from a "hot" center to
an approximate "cosine distribution." If the conditions of use
are not known and if the spotlight may have to serve at longer
throws or smaller areas of high intensity this feature has
merit. Only the trained operator will utilize its full advantage.
The average user, often students with little or no experience,
will more often have the unit at a wrong setting and not know
the proper procedure to correct it. Units located in a fixed
position and filling a routine purpose do not require such
adjustability, even though experts may find it worth while.
For purposes of comparison all units will be taken from the
published data under those conditions most nearly providing
cosine illumination.
7. From this cosine pattern of illumination distribution curves
can be drawn for any distance of throw.
It is interesting to note that the total lumen requirement for
cosine illumination of a 12-foot diameter circle with a central
intensity of 50 footcandles is only 2585 lumens. This astonishingly small amount is unchanged by the distance of throw. At
10 feet no more than 250 watts should be needed; 500 watts
to 60 feet; and 750 watts to 100 feet. 0 nly beyond 100 feet
should it be necessary to use 1000 watts.

Distribution Curves that will provide "Cosine Illumination"
Feet
from
10
FootCenter candles
<1J
0
50.0
0
1
5.7
48.5
2
11.3
44.0
16.7
3
35.5
4
5
5.6
6

25.0
13.0
5.0
0

21.8
26.6
29.3
31.0

Distance of Throw-Feet
20
I
I
l'
20 000
5 000.
0
2.9
19 475
4 930
17 865
4 665
5.7
14 680
4 040
8.5
3 125
1 815
755
0

11.3
14.0
15.6
16.7

10 605
5 695
2 240
0

30

l'
0
1.9
3.8
5.7
7.6
9.5
10.6
11.3

45
43
39
32

I
000
725
865
430

23 105
12 190
4 735
0

r/J

= Angle in degrees from center
I = Candela intensity from source

Candela
50.000

Cosine Illumination-Central intensity 50 footcandles
Beam
50.0

48.5

44.0
35.5

Field

I

30,000

25.0

o

45

60

75

2

3

4

5

15
30
Degrees from Axis

o

1

30 Foot Throw

40,000

0
90

20,000

5.6

6

10,000

5.0

0.0
44.0

0

Feet from Center

50.0

48.5

44.0
0.0

35.5
13.0

25.0
25.0

13.0
35.5

50.0

48.5

44.0

48.5

50.0

48.5

12

44.0

Theatre Design & Technology

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

'I> -Degrees from Axis
USITT /Spring. 1978



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 33
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Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 35
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Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 37
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Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1978 - 40
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http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
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