Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 32

Working in the Czech Theatre
There is now a tremendous amount of theatre activity in the Czech Republic. The Prague Cultural Guide (October 1999) listed fifty-seven
theatres in operation in the city (Prague has about one million inhabitants). On any given evening, according to Jan Dusek, chair of the scenography program at DAMU, there are approximately 10,000 seats available
for live theatre performances in Prague. This has meant an incredible increase in the number of shows being performed and, sadly, the quality
has declined. There simply are not enough qualified actors, directors
and designers available. When this is added to the ever-shrinking budgets
for theatres because of the economic situation, the result is a lot of marginally produced or just plain bad theatre performances.
This all gives rise to a general sense of freneticism in the Prague
theatre scene. Ideas for performances or festivals or special events spill
out over one another. Productions seem to be staged at a kind of breakneck pace. Acting and directing have a frantic quality, and there is little
variation in the orchestration of the events.
Designers are also caught up in the general frenzy. Every designer I
met spoke about the number of shows he or she had designed that year
(sometimes as many as ten or twelve). Pay scales are low (which may account for why the designers are doing so much) and the time for collaboration has shrunk. Many designers employ assistants, work
increasingly by phone or fax, and may not even see the opening of their
productions. A few of the long-term collaborative unions that were
formed during the Socialist period are surviving this new situation; but
there are also many collaborative relationships, both new and old, that
do not last.
Directors have emerged as the dominant force in collaborative
unions and the current generation of directors seemingly have adopted an
"auteur" position. Concepts are foregrounded in productions, and the work
of the actors is frequently relegated to a subservient position. Established
or classic scripts are re-worked, adapted and re-arranged into sometimes interesting, or ambiguous, or nervous, or strange constructions.
The new millennium sees a situation in the Prague theatre that is, at
one and the same time, exhilarating and depressing, exciting and boring.
In the shards of the mirror you can find reflected almost everything that
you would ever care to see. The result for an observer of the scene is, at
times, an extreme sense of disorientation. Patackova's sense of bewilderment was echoed in mine. There were times that I was buoyed up to the
heights by a performance, and then the next day drowning in the depths
of despair by some miserable offering. So what follows is, inevitably, a
personal view, containing digressions and insights as they came to me in
the process of witnessing.
In this series of four articles, I shall examine some of the major pieces
of the shattered mirror, which reflect what I call the New Avant-Garde Theatre. Some in Prague now refer to this phase as "Post-Post Modern" theatre.

The New Avant-Garde Theatre in Opera and Ballet
In our fall 1999 conversation about the status of Czech theatre and scenography, Patackova said she was waiting patiently to see if the concept
of "beauty" will ever appear in the theatre again as it was before the
1990s. For her the 1980s were a good decade and a beautiful decade in
theatre design. At that time, Jaroslav Malina and Jan Dusek came to the
fore with their designs that incorporated color and painting and a re-use
of traditional staging techniques, such as painted backdrops, in their set-

tings for Miss Julie and Danton's Death (Figures 1 and 2). These techniques had not been seen in the Czech theatre since the 1920s, and they
seemed to point the way to a new aesthetic based on a complex and
beautiful visual field. However, after the overthrow of the Communist
government in 1989, also known as the Velvet Revolution, the younger
generation took a different view of what was necessary in the theatre, and
"beauty" was low on their list. They found different ideas to mine in their
theatre history, and a lot of things were thrown away because they were
assumed to be tainted, rightly or wrongly, by their association with the
Communist past. The metaphorical dimension of Action Design was
among those things jettisoned by many of the new generation of theatre
artists because it was seen as only being a tool to protest the totalitarian
regime. Action Design was now derided and abandoned by some designers and theorists because of its identification with the "Period of Normalization." That period of Czech history is now cast into the outer darkness
by all, and the theatre design style that grew up during that time is also
forsaken by some. In its place has come to stand a new production sensibility which is a deliberate and self-conscious attempt to create a New
Avant-Garde in the Czech theatre. Marie Bílková believes this sensibility
fits into a
...recognizable trend of development from asceticism to the
spectacular, from simplicity to the multiplication of expressive
means, and even from anti-illusionism to attempts at a new illusionism which would suggest unusual worlds through a synthesizing gesture...
The acknowledgment of this circle of artists to the "decaying" genre of "show business" and to medial advertising is reminiscent of the interwar avant-garde's inclination towards circus,
cabaret and cinema. There is no room in their concept for asceticism and subdued colors; the strikingness and lavishness of material, shape, color and light ironically touches on the boundaries
of kitsch.
The production teams working with the directors Petr Lébl,
J. A. Pitínsky´, Michal Docekal, Jan Nebesky´ and Vladimír Morávek
(among others the set designers William Novak, the pseudonym
of Petr Lébl; Tomás Rusín, Jan Stepánek, Zuzana Stefunková,
Zuzana Krejzková) apply these principles to both classic and realist drama. They foreground everyday objects, working especially with those which most exceed the everyday. Quotation
from different historic and artistic styles is not a novelty in the
theatre. However, the postmodern spirit chooses (and
hyperbolizes) exactly the most striking phenomena, the most
strident and picturesque; it does not put them into new relationships of a clear context, but fires them at the audience in a
breakneck chain of scenographic shocks. Rather than of metaphor, one could speak of the punch of direct association. The
stage is not a world, but a setting for miracles. However, behind
an apparent unrestrainedness and nonobligatoriness of expressive means, there is often hidden a consistent and careful
building of visual forms of the world of the play, newly discovered
by the director and his team. (Bílková 1999, 8)
A feeling exists on the part of many of the new generation of theatre
directors and designers that, because of the time the country spent under
Socialism, they are now in a kind of intellectual and economic backwater. The move to a market economy has stalled and cannot deliver on its
promises. The economic situation is not any better for the majority of
people in the country now. In fact, for many it is worse. Budgets for the
TD & T

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 5
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