Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 38

Carnival
in

Rio
by

Treva Reimer

I left Iowa on a cold January day in 1999.
arrived in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on a sunny summer one. My friend and
host for my visit, José Henrique Moreira (nicknamed Zé), met me at the
airport and took me for my first glimpses of the city that was to be my
home for the next six weeks. I was about to spend the rest of my winter
three blocks from Copacabana beach thanks to a grant to study Rio's famous Carnival (Carnaval in Portuguese).
Carnaval in Rio is something that must be experienced. It's not just the main
parade during carnival week, but several weeks of parades and parties. The books
written about it and the television coverage don't reveal the whole complicated picture: it's a year-long process with ever-changing rules, political alliances, vast sums
of money, and large numbers of people who put on one of the world's largest theatrical events. I was there primarily to study the visual spectacle and I was not disappointed.
The idea of Carnaval goes back to the pre-Lenten festivals which came to Brazil with the Portuguese in the fourteenth century. What started out as little more
than roving bands of people throwing trash on each other, became organized parades with drums and floats, and finally evolved into a formalized competition in
the 1920s centered around the samba schools in and around Rio. These schools,
or clubs, were community organizations which formed to play music and present a
parade during the few days that lead up to Ash Wednesday. Later, the government
sanctioned the schools and legalized the parades. In 1984 two things happened that
shaped the carnival parade as it is today: First, a permanent parade ground, the
Sambôdromo, was built; and second, ten schools left the Association of Samba
Schools to form a new organization, the Independent League of Samba Schools
(Liga Independente das Escolas de Samba or LIESA). These ten schools-
Caprichosos de Pilares, Estação Primeira de Mangueira, Portela, Mocidade
Independente de Padre Miguel, Beija-Flor, Acadêmicos do Salgueiro, Unidos de
Vila Isabel, Império Serrano, Imperatriz Leopoldinense and União da Ilha do
Governador-still constitute the main members of the most prestigious group of
parade presenters, the Special Group (Grupo Especial).
While the schools gather all year in the dance halls (quadras) to socialize,
play music, hold parties and raise money, the Carnaval parade itself is a serious
competition. In 1999, fourteen schools participated in the elite Special Group
parades on Sunday and Monday. Another fifty or so schools participated in Groups

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 8
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