Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 41

side of the sambas from your schools. Someone asked
for a minute to think and I said okay you can go all the
night-you can think all the night. And nobody could
sing a song from the last five years-people from
samba!
TR: Are the smaller schools filling in the need in
the community?
FP: No. They keep some of the community idea because no
rich people will pay to participate in Tuiuti's parade, for
example. So they keep a little of this community idea.
But since they are trying to move up, they imitate what
the big schools do and they imitate the worst things from
the big schools. If you go to see the Saturday parade,
you will hear sambas made in the old style because they
don't record the samba from the second group. They
still keep the old style of samba.
The rhythm of the samba changed from a more
slow [Pamplona sounds out the rhythms] to a faster one
so that they could record all the sambas on a single LP.
This is one of the reasons for the changes in the samba.
The rhythm of the samba you hear in the parade has
nothing to do with the real samba they still sing in the
communities. Before, they had a night of samba called
Samba de Quadra and they kept playing those sambas
all year and from those sambas the composer could get
some of the music he would use for the parade. Instead
nowadays, they are already thinking of the parade and
so all the samba there is the same because it is already
in that marching rhythm. Many of the Sambas de
Quadra became famous in Carnaval at carnival balls.
The schools quit making Sambas de Quadra aiming
only for the samba parade and so the samba composers
lost this possibility of exercising their melodies.
I don't argue that this isn't the world's best or most
beautiful spectacle.
[Pamplona relates a story of another festival in the middle of
the jungle which Coca Cola now sponsors illustrating the
changes that have occurred all over Brazil with the commercialization of the folk festivals. This festival now has "laser
beams and everything-there, in the jungle!" I sensed that he
was torn between wanting a return to the idea of
"communidade" inherent in the earlier carnival and the improvement in lifestyle of the many people employed now because of the commercialization.]
FP: So we can no longer recognize the special identity of each
school because all of them look the same. Before, the
schools kept their colors and now the carnavalesco just
changes and makes the colors anything he wants. When
I designed for Salgueiro, Salgueiro had only red and
white. When the theme was an African theme we would
put in some black, but we kept the red and white.
Black-it's not a color. Always silver and gold because
those are for the brightness.
TR: Was this a fairly gradual change or did it happen fairly quickly?
FP: No it was gradual. In the old times, the schools had four
floats maximum each one measuring about four meters
40

W I N T E R

2 0 0 1

TD & T

They even have their own line of sportswear which they sell in their shop to their
supporters and a magazine, the Beijia-Flor News, which has recipes, horoscopes,
interviews and obituaries as well as lots of pictures of people involved with the
samba school. Salgueiro has one of the larger warehouses and a dedicated space
for their vacuum-forming operation. The Rio newspapers reported that Salgueiro
was spending the most on their parade-almost R$2 million (around US$1 million). Tuiuti, by contrast, built their floats under a highway overpass.
Each school varies somewhat in how it makes the costumes. Some schools,
Beija-Flor and Grande Rio for example, make the costumes for the special required
sections and dancers in their own costume shop; others use outside costume shops
to make almost everything. Cid Carvalho, a costume designer for Beija-Flor, wasn't
quite sure how many costumes he was actually in charge of making, but thought it
was probably about a thousand. He makes a sample costume for each of their fortyfour sections which is then sent to outside shops to copy. This year Beija-Flor had
four thousand people participating. Other designers, rather than make a sample
costume, give a sketch to the president of the section who then finds a shop to make
the costumes.

The Theme

(Enredo)

"Enredo" is usually translated simply "theme" but that is not really an adequate
definition. A theme for a carnival parade is a kind of play script, and it encompasses both the subject of the school's parade and the story of that subject as it
unfolds throughout the parade. Almost immediately after one carnival, the creative team starts to work on the theme for the next year. Once the subject is

Top opposite: BeijaFlor float commemorating women
praised in samba (see
third stanza of
samba, opposite).
Right: Dancer on
Beija-Flor's abre-ala.
Below: Mestre-Sala
and Porta-bandeira in
Beija-Flor parade.



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 5
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http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
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