Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2010 - 43

2
The first lighting technique to be used in vR is stencil
shadows. Stencil shadows are written into the programming of
a vR simulation in such a way that pre-designated light sources
are calculated for their alignment with the geometry of the computer model and shadows are then cast on other parts of the
model in the appropriate shape and position. These shadows
are interactive. If you use inputs such as a computer mouse to
move the virtual light source, the virtual shadows move correspondingly. They are not, however, very realistic. They are typically hard edged and the color does not respond to the color
of the ambient light sources. The color is simply predefined
or predetermined by the user. The amount of opacity is also
predetermined before the simulation is started. In figure 2 we
see the same setting for Talley's Folly using stencil shadows.
In this case only two light sources are defined. These stencil
shadows are very processor intensive. They require a great deal
of computing power to paint these shadows from complex objects onto other complex objects. Therefore the number of light
sources in a simulation is rather limited. Still, the animation
frame rate drops from around 60 fps to 18 fps. The darkness
of the shadows and the color are pre-determined and written
into the simulation.
The second method of creating lighting in a vR simulation is something called light-mapping or texture rendering. In
some applications it may also be referred to as texture burning.
Most professional modeling applications include this feature.
This form of rendering lighting is very detailed and realistic.
In order to create texture burning, one builds a model in a
favorite modeling program, sets up the lighting, and renders
it with all the appropriate ambient light, colors, cast shadows,
highlights, and shade. Then the appearance of each object is

3

rendered as a material and reapplied to the object. For example, a platform modeled with a simple wooden texture can first
be lit and then have the new texture of wood plus creative lighting effects re-applied to its surface. In this way the texture and
lighting effects are "painted" onto the surfaces of the objects.
In figure 3 another version of the Talley's Folly set is shown
in which the texture of the dock has been lit in an appropriate
manner and reapplied to the dock so that no matter how the
lighting changes, the original lighting is still there because it has
been painted onto the dock texture. All the shadows, highlights,
textures and colors are applied as a painting and cannot be
moved. This type of rendering is not processor intensive therefore there is no limit to the number of light sources that can be
used to create the light-maps. but it is very labor intensive as
one must completely set up the lighting beforehand and then
render each surface and reapply the texture to that surface before sending it to the vR simulation. Therefore it is a good idea
to render only the largest and most obvious surfaces such
as walls, floors, ceilings, or in this case the docks. It is not
necessary to render all of the small surfaces. In figure 3 the
seaweed, the buckets and the small crates on the docks have
not been light-mapped for this reason. This type of rendering
is not interactive. Once put into the vR simulation moving the
light sources will change the basic highlights and shading, but
will not affect the colors and cast shadows painted onto the
objects within the scene. Therefore, for best effect the direction of lights in the vR environments should generally correspond with the direction of the cast shadows mapped onto
objects. If one wants to change the lighting one must go back
to the beginning and relight the model before importing it
again into the vR application.

S P R I N G

2010

theatre

design

&

technology

41



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2010

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2010 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2010 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2010 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2010 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2010 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2010 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2010 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2010 - 8
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