International Educator - May/June 2012 - 25
flows has forced a new interpretation of what used to be feared—“brain drain”; now, the terms more applicable are “brain circulation” or “brain exchange.” However, the singular exception to this dynamic pattern of student flow remains Africa which “has the highest outbound mobility ration of any world region.” ■■ Increasing numbers of students are returning to their home countries to find employment. Research confirms that “large numbers of Indian and Chinese students in the United States plan to return home.” Other Asian nations have instituted policies to proactively recruit scientists and engineers to return home and enter the workforce. ■■ Among top receiving nations, the United States has a “large untapped capacity to
■■ The new multidirectionality of student
absorb significant future growth in international student enrollment” (as of 2007–2008, enrollment of international students was only 3.5 percent of total higher education enrollment in the nation). By contrast, Australia’s international student enrollment as at 22.5 percent of its total student enrollment. The last chapter by Jane Knight discusses what she refers to as “international education cities” and “regional hubs.” The terms apply to selected countries where traditional and nontraditional forms of delivering education are of a magnitude not found in other regions. These areas—and she discusses three Middle Eastern countries (United Arab Emirates, Quatar, and Bahrain) and three in Asia (Singapore, Hong Kong, and Malaysia). The education initiatives in these countries are not driven solely by the high-
er education sector, but also by “economic development boards, tourism authorities, multinational investment companies…and science and technology enterprises…” These varied actors have differing expectations for the outcome of their investment—and student learning and related education goals may not be a high priority. However, Knight states that “a common element to all initiatives [in these six nations] is a clear acknowledgement of the need to prepare a skilled job-ready workforce for the knowledge economy.”IE
MaRTIN TIllMaN is president of Global career compass, an international consultancy, and former associate director of career services at the Johns hopkins school of advanced international studies. 1 Page 11.
M AY + J U N E . 12 InternatIonal educator