International Educator - May/June 2012 - 5

ployment each year in the United States. A 2010 analysis from the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation concluded, “Put simply…without startups, there would be no net job growth in the U.S. economy.”3 The Kauffman Foundation’s Tim Kane believes elected officials need to be aware of the role of new businesses. “In terms of the life cycle of job growth, policymakers should appreciate the astoundingly large effect of job creation in the first year of a firm’s life. In other words…effective policy to promote employment growth must include a central consideration for startup firms.”4 An important subset of startup companies—those started by immigrants—has come to the attention of researchers in recent years. The Small Business Administration (SBA) has concluded, “Immigrants are nearly 30 percent more likely to start a business than are nonimmigrants, and they represent 16.7 percent of all new business owners in the

United States.” The SBA study found, “Immigrant business owners make significant contributions to business income, generating $67 billion of the $577 billion in U.S. business income, as estimated from 2000 U.S. Census data. They generate nearly one-quarter of all business income in California—nearly $20 billion—and nearly one-fifth of business income in New York, Florida, and New Jersey.”5 Researchers from Duke University and University of California, Berkeley interviewed executives at U.S. technology and engineering companies and concluded: “Of the 2,054 companies we interviewed, 25.3 percent reported that at least one of their key founders was an immigrant. Extrapolating from this sample, we estimate that all companies founded by immigrants from 1995 to 2005 produced $52 billion in sales and employed 450,000 workers in 2005,” according to Vivek Wadhwa, AnnaLee Saxenian, Ben Rissing, and Gary Gereffi.6

International Students Face Obstacles as Entrepreneurs
Nearly all stories of successful immigrant entrepreneurs involve individuals who received permanent residence after first working for another company, through family sponsorship or as a refugee. Rarely does an individual, for example, transition directly from being an international student to starting a business and receiving both temporary status and a green card connected to that business. While in theory the U.S. government promotes entrepreneurship, in practice, any foreign national who seeks to stay in the United States and start a new business is likely to meet considerable resistance. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) reported on “cases in which entrepreneurs attempting to establish very early-stage technology start-ups were unable to obtain H-1B or other work visas for themselves, and either relocated the project abroad or had to

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of International Educator - May/June 2012

International Educator - May/June 2012
Table of Contents
From the Editors
Frontlines
In Brief
Voices
Leaving Light Footprints
Weathering the Storm
Pathfinders
IUPUI—Choosing Partners Carefully for an Urban Research University
Education Abroad
Foreign Student Affairs
Partnering
Forum
In Focus
International Educator - May/June 2012 - CT1
International Educator - May/June 2012 - CT2
International Educator - May/June 2012 - International Educator - May/June 2012
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Cover2
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Table of Contents
International Educator - May/June 2012 - From the Editors
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 3
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Frontlines
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 5
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 6
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 7
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 8
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 9
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 10
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 11
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 12
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 13
International Educator - May/June 2012 - In Brief
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 15
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 16
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 17
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 18
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International Educator - May/June 2012 - 24
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 25
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 26
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 27
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Voices
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 29
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 30
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 31
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 32
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 33
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 34
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International Educator - May/June 2012 - 36
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 37
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 38
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 39
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Leaving Light Footprints
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 41
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 42
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 43
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International Educator - May/June 2012 - 50
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 51
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 52
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 53
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Weathering the Storm
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 55
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 56
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 57
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 58
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 59
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International Educator - May/June 2012 - 72
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 73
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 74
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 75
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Pathfinders
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 77
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 78
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 79
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 80
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 81
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International Educator - May/June 2012 - 90
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 91
International Educator - May/June 2012 - IUPUI—Choosing Partners Carefully for an Urban Research University
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 93
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 94
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 95
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International Educator - May/June 2012 - 108
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 109
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Education Abroad
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 111
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 112
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 113
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Foreign Student Affairs
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 115
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 116
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 117
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Partnering
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 119
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 120
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 121
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 122
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 123
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Forum
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 125
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 126
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 127
International Educator - May/June 2012 - In Focus
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Cover3
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Cover4
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