International Educator - May/June 2012 - 68

it yourself,” says McCourt. “At my university, we have small amounts of funds awarded based upon how much you get published per year. So the research products are evaluated for quantity [not quality]. You might get €1,000 a year if you are prolific at my institution. And that funding is destined to go.” That has led to a long-term flood of some of the top academics in more marketable areas out of the country, a trend that has only been exacerbated by the current climate, McCourt says. “There has been a huge drain of scientists, doctors, engineers, and humanities professors to the United States. There were vague attempts to bring them back five years ago—“Return of the Brains” is what they called the effort—that brought back 100 people or so.” Corruption also stalks the system, McCourt says. “The system for hiring people is controversial and political—it’s rare that there’s a fair competition for positions. There is nepotism and corruption. It is widespread, especially at a moment like this when fewer jobs are available. It’s who knows whom and if a position is created, it’s created with a person in mind. They are very often deserving people, but it’s not a fair competition. There are efforts to move toward a centralized system of recruiting.”
Some Institutions Aim to Make Changes

For-profit and religious institutions are starting to change the landscape, says Walston, whose American University of Rome is a private, freestanding American liberal arts university. “[American University of Rome] should be in a stronger position as a foreign institution in Italy,” Walston says. “A large portion of our students are from the United States, and the €13,000 tuition we charge is already less than many U.S. institutions. If the euro goes down with respect to the dollar, Americans will pay less, so more are likely to come. Also, the UK’s enormous increase in tuition fees means that, whereas before we were not competitive for those students, our €13,000 tuition is comparable to the [new UK rate of ] £9,000.” Walston says that the American University of Rome has a very international body, “We have two-thirds of our students coming from study abroad programs, with the remaining one-third of students being resident, degree-seeking students. Of the degree-seeking students, a quarter of those are American, a quarter Italian, and the rest from everywhere else—such as the [Persian] Gulf, the former Yugoslavia, and children of diplomats.”

That has led to a response by the large public universities, Walston says. “The public universities have been looking much more aggressively for students and many of the master’s programs are starting to be seriously marketed abroad. I am working with colleagues with University of Rome 3 (Roma Tre University) on an international development master’s program to be taught in English. Some bachelor’s programs are also being targeted at international students, which is helped by the fact that they can offer lower costs than American universities, often targeted at those with scholarships, particularly at children of employees from the embassies or international associations.” Walston says that financial challenges have forced universities to think outside of the box. “When we work with University of Rome 3, our collaborative efforts allow them to do things for free and allow us to do things by exchanging resources rather than by paying. For our students, they get to attend classes at Rome 3 without paying.” While facing challenges, the Italian higher education system is faring better than the Greek system in part because of stronger primary and secondary schooling, says Stanford Professor Eric Hanushek, who has studied educational achievement and impact on gross domestic product in OECD countries. “Higher education pays but it has an even bigger impact if students are well prepared going into it,” Hanushek says. “If one is getting little out of primary and secondary schools, as is the case in Greece, when you compare it to those doing better, like schools in Italy, then a year of higher education has a higher impact in Italy than in Greece. While we measured mainly science and math, at an overall level, everything is correlated. You don’t see countries [that are] good at math that are not literate.” Martinotti looks past the immediate crisis when asked if he is optimistic or pessimistic about the future of Italian higher education. “That’s difficult to answer,” he says. “Higher education is in crisis in the U.S., too. Overall, higher education is an old system that doesn’t perform well in our knowledge-based system. Fifty years back, universities had a monopoly of knowledge. Now real knowledge is produced in many places. In Italy, I’ve seen universities become much better during my career. They were very bad in the beginning. There is now a larger number of students who receive degrees. We still are at the bottom of countries by the number of degreeholders in the OECD. But the students are better, more professional, and they know the worth of studies. Altogether, there are lots of good professors and good researchers. If you go by research, and if you look at productivity by researcher, the performance of Italian higher education institutions is high, but our rankings are not high in the aggregate because there is little money and low support. Overall, I’m moderately optimistic.”

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InternatIonal educator M AY + J U N E .1 2



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of International Educator - May/June 2012

International Educator - May/June 2012
Table of Contents
From the Editors
Frontlines
In Brief
Voices
Leaving Light Footprints
Weathering the Storm
Pathfinders
IUPUI—Choosing Partners Carefully for an Urban Research University
Education Abroad
Foreign Student Affairs
Partnering
Forum
In Focus
International Educator - May/June 2012 - CT1
International Educator - May/June 2012 - CT2
International Educator - May/June 2012 - International Educator - May/June 2012
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Cover2
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Table of Contents
International Educator - May/June 2012 - From the Editors
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 3
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Frontlines
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 5
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 6
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 7
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 8
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 9
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 10
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 11
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 12
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 13
International Educator - May/June 2012 - In Brief
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 15
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 16
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 17
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 18
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 19
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 20
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International Educator - May/June 2012 - 24
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 25
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 26
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 27
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Voices
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 29
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 30
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 31
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 32
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 33
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 34
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 35
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 36
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 37
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 38
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 39
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Leaving Light Footprints
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 41
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 42
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 43
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 44
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 45
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International Educator - May/June 2012 - 50
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 51
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 52
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 53
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Weathering the Storm
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 55
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 56
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 57
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 58
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 59
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 60
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International Educator - May/June 2012 - 72
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 73
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 74
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 75
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Pathfinders
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 77
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 78
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 79
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 80
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 81
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International Educator - May/June 2012 - 89
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 90
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 91
International Educator - May/June 2012 - IUPUI—Choosing Partners Carefully for an Urban Research University
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 93
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 94
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 95
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 96
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International Educator - May/June 2012 - 108
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 109
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Education Abroad
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 111
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 112
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 113
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Foreign Student Affairs
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 115
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 116
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 117
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Partnering
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 119
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 120
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 121
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 122
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 123
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Forum
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 125
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 126
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 127
International Educator - May/June 2012 - In Focus
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Cover3
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Cover4
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