International Educator - May/June 2012 - 70

Over the last 25 years, successive governments conducted a steady campaign to build up the higher education sector, based upon a consensus that educational weaknesses were holding back development of the country. Still, the educational system has also been wracked by instability, with 27 education ministers serving since 1974. Efforts to grow the system were also in some cases inefficient, says Pedro Nuno Teixeira, director of CIPES, the Portuguese Center for Research in Higher Education Policies. “Fast expansion created a large number of private and public institutions. There are about 180 higher education institutions for a country of 10 million people—that is too many.” Portugal began to suffer in the current crisis after running huge debts with the rest of the world. In late 2011, the Portuguese government announced that higher education and social education support funding would be reduced by nearly 20 percent in 2012.
Most Recent Cuts
Pedro nuno teixeira, director of cIPeS, the Portuguese center for research in Higher education Policies

P

Portugal’s Bumps on the Road to Catching Up
struggled to recover from a 50-year civilian dictatorship that ended in 1974. During that period, the country’s education system was generally underfunded and undervalued.
oRTUGAl’s ECoNoMY AND hiGhER EDUC ATioN sYsTE M have long

InternatIonal educator M AY + J U N E .1 2

The Impact of Fewer Resources

The cuts will impact the research side of universities more than the instruction side, agrees Alberto Amaral, former rector of the University of Porto and current president

70  

courtesy of pedro nuno teixeira

The latest cuts are particularly painful given previous rounds of cuts imposed in relation to international funding tied to austerity commitments. “Portugal has been on austerity measures for 10 years,” says Teixeira. “We were the first European country to breach a stability pact in 2001 and pay scales in the public sector were frozen for most of the last decade. When in 2008 and 2009 several countries like Spain and Ireland had cuts, our political margin to cut more was more difficult since salaries had been frozen, and in 2009 we had an election year and there was an actual increase in salaries. Then the situation deteriorated further and led to a bailout in 2011.” As part of the latest cuts, salaries have been reduced. Teixeira says that full and associate professors over the 2011 and 2012 period will suffer cumulative wage cuts of 25 to 26 percent. Despite general funding limitations, the government managed to increase science and research for the previous 10 to 15 years as a top national priority. Only in 2011 has it been cut for the first time. Thus, Teixeira says there is a margin for some austerity, though he says more than a year or two will endanger the progress that has been made.

of the board at the Portuguese Agency for Assessment and Accreditation of Higher Education. “The system was rather irrational with respect to the offering of programs, so there is still space to make it more efficient on the instruction side,” Amaral says. “But that is not the case for research; there will be more impact there.” With fewer resources, the government is now focusing on quality at the higher education level, with Amaral and his agency implementing a new accreditation process over the past three years to ensure adherence to higher educational standards, particularly with respect to many private institutions that Teixeira says were set up with lax oversight. The new requirement calls upon every new higher education program to be submitted to the agency for review, as well as for recertification of existing programs. The result has been that several hundred programs have not sought recertification. “They realized it would be hard for them to be approved,” Teixeira says. “Many closed down their programs. Because of this requirement, public and private institutions are being more careful.” While there is a significant private educational sector in Portugal, unlike many other European countries, some educators contend that it was built on the cheap, often for student who could not gain acceptance to the public



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of International Educator - May/June 2012

International Educator - May/June 2012
Table of Contents
From the Editors
Frontlines
In Brief
Voices
Leaving Light Footprints
Weathering the Storm
Pathfinders
IUPUI—Choosing Partners Carefully for an Urban Research University
Education Abroad
Foreign Student Affairs
Partnering
Forum
In Focus
International Educator - May/June 2012 - CT1
International Educator - May/June 2012 - CT2
International Educator - May/June 2012 - International Educator - May/June 2012
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Cover2
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Table of Contents
International Educator - May/June 2012 - From the Editors
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 3
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Frontlines
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 5
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 6
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 7
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 8
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 9
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 10
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 11
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 12
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 13
International Educator - May/June 2012 - In Brief
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 15
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 16
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 17
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 18
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 19
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 20
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 21
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 22
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 23
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 24
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 25
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 26
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 27
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Voices
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 29
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 30
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 31
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 32
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 33
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 34
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 35
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 36
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 37
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 38
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 39
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Leaving Light Footprints
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 41
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 42
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 43
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 44
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 45
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 46
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 47
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 48
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 49
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 50
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 51
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 52
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 53
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Weathering the Storm
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 55
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 56
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 57
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 58
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 59
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 60
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 61
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 62
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 63
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 64
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 65
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 66
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 67
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 68
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 69
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 70
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 71
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 72
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 73
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 74
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 75
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Pathfinders
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 77
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 78
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 79
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 80
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 81
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 82
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 83
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 84
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 85
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 86
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 87
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 88
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 89
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 90
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 91
International Educator - May/June 2012 - IUPUI—Choosing Partners Carefully for an Urban Research University
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 93
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 94
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 95
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 96
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 97
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 98
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 99
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 100
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 101
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 102
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 103
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 104
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 105
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 106
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 107
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 108
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 109
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Education Abroad
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 111
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 112
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 113
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Foreign Student Affairs
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 115
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 116
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 117
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Partnering
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 119
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 120
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 121
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 122
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 123
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Forum
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 125
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 126
International Educator - May/June 2012 - 127
International Educator - May/June 2012 - In Focus
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Cover3
International Educator - May/June 2012 - Cover4
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20190910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20190708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20190506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20190304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20190102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20181112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20180708gfclone
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20180910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20180708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20180506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20180304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20180102_supp
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20180102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20171112_supp
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20171112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_2070910_supp
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20170910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20170708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20170506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20170304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20170102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20161112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20160910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20160708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20160506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20160304_fr
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20160304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20160102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20151112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20150910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20150708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20150506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20150304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20150102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20141112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20140910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20140708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20140506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20140304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20140102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20131112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20130910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20130708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20130506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20130304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20130102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20121112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20120910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20120708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20120506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20120304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20120102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20111112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20110910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20110708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20110506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20110304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20110102
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com