International Educator - January/February 2013 - 22

A mother sits with her son in a small temporary shelter after being displaced by fighting in West Darfur Sudan

group,” though what constitutes enough of a “part” to qualify as genocide has been the subject of much debate among scholars. The UN definition tends to exclude whole categories of people whom Kroc Institute Assistant Professor Ernesto Verdeja believes were victims of genocide. As a result, he said, many scholars have tried to develop definitions that he believes more accurately reflect widespread exterminations of people. “This means there are many definitions out there,” Verdeja said. “Some scholars are interested in mass killings—what process, dynamics, conditions lead to this and what conditions can stop that. To them, genocides tend to happen in context of war, such as in Bosnia. Others are interested in the slow process of destroying cultural identity, as happened here in the U.S. with Native Americans, or when the Australian government took Aboriginal children considered of mixed race and gave them to white families, which many scholars consider the destroying of Aboriginal identity. In Darfur, there is debate over whether people are dying there because of the intentional result of government policy, or the carrying out of a counterinsurgency program.”

Why Genocide Happens
Trying to determine why genocide happens can be difficult. “It is not easy to single out one cause that leads to genocide,” says Alejandro Baer, associate professor of sociology and director of the Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies at the University of Minnesota. “Genocide is a collection of actions that unfold over time and the factors are different in societies at different levels of political development. While it is surely not the only cause for genocide, ideology is often a key dimension of it. An ideology that singles out an enemy community (in ethnic, religious, racial or even political terms) qualifies as a universal warning sign of a potential ethnic cleansing or genocide.” Several higher education institutions have centers dealing with genocide that aim to understand the causes and effects of genocide—and help educate students who will one day go out into the world and hopefully advocate to stop it—or, even better, prevent it from happening in the first place. The Strassler Center Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies at Clark University “trains students, educators, and activists to develop a sophisticated understanding of genocide,” says Mary Rein. The Strassler Center has a doctoral program in Holocaust History and Genocide Studies in conjunction with the History Department and a doctoral program in Psychology of Genocide in conjunction with the Psychology Department, as well as an undergraduate concentration. The undergraduate concentration is interdisciplinary and offers courses such as “Introduction to History of Genocide”; “Holocaust: Agency and Action”; “Genocide, Denial, Facing History and Reconciliation”; and “Social and Cultural Psychology of Genocides,” among others. One undergraduate pursuing the concentration in Holocaust and genocide studies is Shelby Margolin. “I have grown up surrounded by ghosts of the Holocaust,” she explains. While none of her family was directly affected, her father felt deeply connected to the event through his Jewish heritage. He collected more than 700 survivor testimonies and took Margolin to hear survivors speak at events during her childhood. “I always felt reassured that as long as people knew about the experience of Holocaust survivors, then the promise of “never again” would ring true,” she explains. But she says, “Then reality hit.”

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DAVID SNYDER/ BIGSTOCK



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of International Educator - January/February 2013

International Educator - January/February 2013
Table of Contents
From the Editors
Frontlines
In Brief
Intimate Proximity: The Human Face of Genocide
After the Curtain Fell
University of Michigan: Global Giant
Special Section: Japan
Education Abroad
Forum
In Focus
International Educator - January/February 2013 - International Educator - January/February 2013
International Educator - January/February 2013 - Cover2
International Educator - January/February 2013 - Table of Contents
International Educator - January/February 2013 - From the Editors
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 3
International Educator - January/February 2013 - Frontlines
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 5
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 6
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 7
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 8
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 9
International Educator - January/February 2013 - In Brief
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 11
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 12
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 13
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 14
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 15
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 16
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 17
International Educator - January/February 2013 - Intimate Proximity: The Human Face of Genocide
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 19
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 20
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 21
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 22
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 23
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 24
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 25
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 26
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 27
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 28
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 29
International Educator - January/February 2013 - After the Curtain Fell
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 31
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 32
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 33
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 34
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 35
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 36
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 37
International Educator - January/February 2013 - University of Michigan: Global Giant
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 39
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 40
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 41
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 42
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 43
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 44
International Educator - January/February 2013 - Special Section: Japan
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 46
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 47
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 48
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 49
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 50
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 51
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 52
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 53
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 54
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 55
International Educator - January/February 2013 - Education Abroad
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 57
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 58
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 59
International Educator - January/February 2013 - Forum
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 61
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 62
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 63
International Educator - January/February 2013 - In Focus
International Educator - January/February 2013 - Cover3
International Educator - January/February 2013 - Cover4
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