International Educator - January/February 2013 - 34

After the Curtain Fell
Western-style Universities Created
Once communism collapsed in Hungary, a number of higher education providers set up shop there, and some were of questionable quality, Frenyo recalls. But McDaniel College Budapest and CEU have both thrived since they were established in the mid-1990s. Another early entrant into the region’s higher education scene was the American University in Bulgaria, which was established in Blagoevgrad in 1991 in an effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Bulgaria’s local and national governments, and the Open Society Institute, founded by Hungarian-born investor and philanthropist George Soros. AUBG gets high marks from the Bulgarian Ministry of Education, and this year’s graduates have gone on to study at places like Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University, and Colombia University, says David Huwiler, president of AUBG. The school is patterned after a traditional, residential liberal arts college in the United States, and has about 1,100 students. In the coming years, Huwiler expects to have 1,300 to 1,400 students enrolled. “It’s no longer quite the risk it was choosing AUBG as it was in 1991,” Huwiler says. Orlina Boteva, education abroad adviser at the University of Maine, knows that firsthand. When she graduated from high school in Bulgaria in 1998, many pushed her to attend a traditional Bulgarian university, but she was set on AUBG. “The buzz at the time was that this school was up and coming.” The Bulgarian educational system relied on rote learning rather than critical thinking, so it was a big shift for Boteva to write essays and express her opinion. At AUBG she majored in history, and then got master’s degrees in history and higher education at the University of Maine. AUBG’s first diploma was issued by the University of Maine, and many of the courses are the same between the two schools. AUBG is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges, as well as by the Bulgarian National Evaluation and Accreditation Agency. Another Western-style university in the region is CEU, which was founded with the initial goal of aiding the transition from communism to democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. It, too, has close ties to Soros. With its founding, another goal of CEU was to “jump start education, especially in social sciences, which had withered under communism,” says Peter Johnson, CEU’s vice president for student services. The focus was on graduate students from the region who at that time “had few opportunities to pursue a Western-style graduate degree,” Johnson says. Budapest also is home to McDaniel College Budapest, which was founded after educators and entrepreneurs from College International Inc. came to the United States, looking for a college that would

A Perspective on Communism’s Collapse and European Higher Education
By Elaina Loveland

‘‘L
34  

Christian Bode is the former secretary general of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). He was appointed at DAAD in 1990 and witnessed and assisted the transformation of higher education in the formerly communist region in Europe firsthand.
OOKING BACK TO THESE ROARING NINETIES I see light and shadows,”

says Christian Bode, former secretary general of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). “Many of those who had been on the go could now make for the West. Many young (and elder) scientists left the country—not too many of them returned.” Also, the number of Russian students left the former Soviet Union and came to Western Europe. “The number of Russian students in

Germany rose to more than 10,000; all Eastern European countries amount to more than 50,000),” Bode says. The dynamics of how European countries dealt with the collapse of communism in the region were varied. “There was a great difference between the Middle-eastern European countries (from Balticum south to Balkans) on the one side and the former Soviet Union on the other side,” explains Bode. “The former ones were ‘coming back home’ into the European house;

the latter one unfolded into 15 new states, which are still seeking their new identity.” Bode notes that the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe marked the division between the old and a new way of doing things. “The old order was destroyed—also the many positive sides of it: the high prestige of education and science “intelligentia” and culture,” Bode says. “The new order had difficulties to establish itself: the economic situation deteriorated in most countries, the state subsidies decreased, money



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of International Educator - January/February 2013

International Educator - January/February 2013
Table of Contents
From the Editors
Frontlines
In Brief
Intimate Proximity: The Human Face of Genocide
After the Curtain Fell
University of Michigan: Global Giant
Special Section: Japan
Education Abroad
Forum
In Focus
International Educator - January/February 2013 - International Educator - January/February 2013
International Educator - January/February 2013 - Cover2
International Educator - January/February 2013 - Table of Contents
International Educator - January/February 2013 - From the Editors
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 3
International Educator - January/February 2013 - Frontlines
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 5
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 6
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 7
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 8
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 9
International Educator - January/February 2013 - In Brief
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 11
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 12
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 13
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 14
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 15
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 16
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 17
International Educator - January/February 2013 - Intimate Proximity: The Human Face of Genocide
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 19
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 20
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 21
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 22
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 23
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 24
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 25
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 26
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 27
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 28
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 29
International Educator - January/February 2013 - After the Curtain Fell
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 31
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 32
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 33
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 34
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 35
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 36
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 37
International Educator - January/February 2013 - University of Michigan: Global Giant
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 39
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 40
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 41
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 42
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 43
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 44
International Educator - January/February 2013 - Special Section: Japan
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 46
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 47
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 48
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 49
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 50
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 51
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 52
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 53
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 54
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 55
International Educator - January/February 2013 - Education Abroad
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 57
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 58
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 59
International Educator - January/February 2013 - Forum
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 61
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 62
International Educator - January/February 2013 - 63
International Educator - January/February 2013 - In Focus
International Educator - January/February 2013 - Cover3
International Educator - January/February 2013 - Cover4
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