International Educator - July/August 2014 - 25

COURTESY OF PAUL SMITH

Smith says. "Kabul and Herat were relatively liberal metropolitan cities. What happened is that under the Taliban,
there was a complete collapse of the university system and
a reduction in the belief of their values such that even now,
10 to 12 years after attempts at restoration began, less than
five percent of the faculties of universities have PhDs."
During the late 1970s, before the turmoil commencing with the country's invasion by the Soviet Union, and
continued by the rise of the Taliban and the current U.S.
war against the Taliban, Al-Queda, and extremists, there
was a period when the country was making considerable
progress in developing higher education institutions.

In Afghanistan, under-capacity is a serious problem
in higher education institutions. According to the 10year strategic plan developed by the Ministry of Higher
Education, existing institutions have the capacity to accommodate no more than 150,000 students, which could
leave as many as 85 percent of applicants unable to attend.
There is a severe lack of qualified faculty as well. "In Afghanistan, 85 percent of the faculty have a bachelor's degree,"
Ball State's Holland says. "The level of academic quality is
very, very low. In Afghanistan, most of the professors have
two or three jobs. We've tried to get the universities to force
professors to come to class and teach but were never successful. We were told that the salaries are so low that they must
have a second job. That limits the quality of the instruction."
A host of new universities are stepping into the breach.
"A major development is an explosion of new private higher education institutions," says Quadir Amiryar, who until
recently headed the Central Asia Research and Development Center, and is a former faculty member at George
Washington University. Amiryar previously served in
various roles in the Afghan government, including as a
senior legal and policy adviser to Afghan President Hamid Karzai, as well as senior adviser to the Ministry of
Higher Education, where he assisted in writing Afghanistan's higher education strategic plan. "There are 17 public
institutions of higher education and, as of this month, 74
private institutions, most of them not more than five years
old. Their quality of education varies, but they are providing competition with the public universities."
U.S.-Afghan higher education institution partnerships
are occurring at the highest levels, notes Fred Hayward,
currently senior higher education adviser for the Higher
Education Project and the Afghan Ministry of Higher
Education and a former professor of political science at
the University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Paul Smith,
director of the
British Council
USA, the United
Kingdom's official
organization for
international
education and
culture

Fred Hayward,
senior education
adviser for the
Higher Education
Project and the
Afghan Ministry
of Education (in
the middle) with
(from left to right)
former Minister
Muhammad Azam
Dadfur (2009).
Deputy Minister
M. O. Babury and
two other two
deputy ministers
(finance and
transformation).

COURTESY OF FRED HAYWARD

J U LY + AU G . 1 4 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATOR

25



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of International Educator - July/August 2014

Revitalizing Education in Afghanistan: Overcoming Decades of Devastation
All Smiles
In Brief
Voices: Kakenya Ntaiya: Founder of the Kakenya Center for Excellence
Education Abroad
Forum
In Focus
International Educator - July/August 2014 - Cover1
International Educator - July/August 2014 - Cover2
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 1
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 2
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 3
International Educator - July/August 2014 - In Brief
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 5
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 6
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 7
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 8
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 9
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 10
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 11
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 12
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 13
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 14
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 15
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 16
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 17
International Educator - July/August 2014 - Voices: Kakenya Ntaiya: Founder of the Kakenya Center for Excellence
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 19
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 20
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 21
International Educator - July/August 2014 - Revitalizing Education in Afghanistan: Overcoming Decades of Devastation
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 23
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 24
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 25
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 26
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 27
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 28
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 29
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 30
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 31
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 32
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 33
International Educator - July/August 2014 - All Smiles
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 35
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 36
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 37
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 38
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 39
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 40
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 41
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 42
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 43
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 44
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 45
International Educator - July/August 2014 - Education Abroad
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 47
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 48
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 49
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 50
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 51
International Educator - July/August 2014 - Forum
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 53
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 54
International Educator - July/August 2014 - 55
International Educator - July/August 2014 - In Focus
International Educator - July/August 2014 - Cover3
International Educator - July/August 2014 - Cover4
International Educator - July/August 2014 - SCover1
International Educator - July/August 2014 - SCover2
International Educator - July/August 2014 - S1
International Educator - July/August 2014 - S2
International Educator - July/August 2014 - S3
International Educator - July/August 2014 - S4
International Educator - July/August 2014 - S5
International Educator - July/August 2014 - S6
International Educator - July/August 2014 - S7
International Educator - July/August 2014 - S8
International Educator - July/August 2014 - S9
International Educator - July/August 2014 - S10
International Educator - July/August 2014 - S11
International Educator - July/August 2014 - S12
International Educator - July/August 2014 - SCover3
International Educator - July/August 2014 - SCover4
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