International Educator - May/June 2015 - 5

|

FRONTLINES
By Stuart Anderson

Immigrant Scientists
Invaluable to the United States
EVERY YEAR when the Nobel Prizes are announced, out of curiosity, I check to see if any im-

migrants to the United States won a prize in science. The 2014 Nobel Prize awards followed a now
predictable pattern: University of California-Santa Barbara Professor Shuji Nakamura, who was
born in Japan, shared the prize in physics for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes,
which help improve energy efficiency.

Immigration Policy
From the founding of the nation until 1921, no numerical restrictions existed to limit immigration to the United States.
In 1921, Congress passed "national origins" legislation that,
through the use of restrictive country quotas, aimed to stop
the immigration of Jews, Italians, and other European immigrants not of Anglo-Saxon or Nordic descent. In 1924
those restrictions increased and became permanent. This
followed the Immigration Act of 1917, which established,
among other things, an "Asiatic Barred Zone" to prevent the
immigration of Asians to the United States, expanding the
scope of The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.
Although in 1943 Congress repealed the Chinese
Exclusion Act and in 1952 changed the Asiatic Barred
Zone, it was not until the passage of the Immigration and
Nationality Act of 1965 that immigration was open potentially to anyone in the world without regard to national
origin. In addition, the increase in quotas in 1965 and in
1990, which raised family and employment-based green
card quotas, opened the door wide to Asian immigrants,
particularly those who came to the United States as international students. These changes in the law were key
factors in enhancing the ability of the United States to
4  

INTERNATIONAL EDUCATOR M AY + J U N E .15

assimilate talented individuals from around the world into
our culture and economy.

Nobel Prizes
The Nobel Prize, the most prestigious award in science,
began in 1901 and has been given annually by the Royal
Swedish Academy of Sciences. Research I conducted on
Nobel Prize winners illustrates how the impact of immigrant scientists has increased dramatically over the past
half century, corresponding with the changes in U.S. immigration law.1 A good example is in the field of chemistry.
Between 1901 and 1959, only one immigrant to the United States (William Francis Giauque) won the Nobel Prize
in Chemistry. But over approximately the same number
of years between 1960 and 2014, 23 immigrants won the
Nobel Prize in Chemistry.2 (See Figure 1.)

Figure 1
Immigrant Nobel Prize Winners in Chemistry
1901-2014
30
23
15
8
0

1901-1959

1960-2014

Source: Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, National Foundation for American Policy,
George Mason University Institute for Immigration Research.

ISTOCK

Many immigrant scientists come to the United States
as international students or university professors and
influence their fields in profound ways. The stories and
numbers behind immigrant scientists can be documented
historically across a range of fields and up to the present
day. But these contributions would have been impossible
without important changes to U.S. immigration law.



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of International Educator - May/June 2015

Pathfinders
Job Search: An American Tale
On the Rise
Frontlines
In Brief
Voices
Education Abroad
Foreign Student Affairs
International Enrollment
Forum
In Focus
International Educator - May/June 2015 - Cover1
International Educator - May/June 2015 - Cover2
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 1
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 2
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 3
International Educator - May/June 2015 - Frontlines
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 5
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 6
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 7
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 8
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 9
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 10
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 11
International Educator - May/June 2015 - In Brief
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 13
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 14
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 15
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 16
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 17
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 18
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 19
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 20
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 21
International Educator - May/June 2015 - Voices
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 23
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 24
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 25
International Educator - May/June 2015 - Pathfinders
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 27
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 28
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 29
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 30
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 31
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 32
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 33
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 34
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 35
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 36
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 37
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 38
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 39
International Educator - May/June 2015 - Job Search: An American Tale
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 41
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 42
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 43
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 44
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 45
International Educator - May/June 2015 - On the Rise
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 47
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 48
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 49
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 50
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 51
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 52
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 53
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 54
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 55
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 56
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 57
International Educator - May/June 2015 - Education Abroad
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 59
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 60
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 61
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 62
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 63
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 64
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 65
International Educator - May/June 2015 - Foreign Student Affairs
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 67
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 68
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 69
International Educator - May/June 2015 - International Enrollment
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 71
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 72
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 73
International Educator - May/June 2015 - Forum
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 75
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 76
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 77
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 78
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 79
International Educator - May/June 2015 - In Focus
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 81
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 82
International Educator - May/June 2015 - 83
International Educator - May/June 2015 - Cover3
International Educator - May/June 2015 - Cover4
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20190910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20190708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20190506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20190304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20190102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20181112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20180708gfclone
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20180910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20180708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20180506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20180304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20180102_supp
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20180102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20171112_supp
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20171112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_2070910_supp
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20170910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20170708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20170506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20170304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20170102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20161112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20160910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20160708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20160506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20160304_fr
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20160304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20160102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20151112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20150910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20150708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20150506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20150304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20150102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20141112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20140910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20140708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20140506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20140304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20140102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20131112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20130910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20130708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20130506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20130304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20130102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20121112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20120910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20120708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20120506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20120304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20120102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20111112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20110910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20110708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20110506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20110304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/nafsa/ie_20110102
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com