Sky and Telescope - September 2018 - 18

MARS

The Case for Venus

Marsnik 1 | USSR [F]
Marsnik 2 | USSR [F]

Venus was the first
target for planetary
exploration in the
Space Age. Nearly
twice as many spacecraft visited it as
went to Mars in the
1960s - and four
times as many in the
1980s. But after Magellan's mission ended in 1994, interest
waned.
Failed mission
Successful mission
(includes partially)
[B]
[F]
[L]
[O]
[Pe]
[Pr]
[R]
[S]
[U]

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

balloon
flyby
lander
orbiter
penetrator
probe
rover
sample return
unclear

Sputnik 22 | USSR [F]
Mars 1 | USSR [F]
Sputnik 24 | USSR [L]

Mariner 3 | NASA [F]
Mariner 4 | NASA [F]
Zond 2 | USSR [F]

Mariner 6 | NASA [F]
Mariner 7 | NASA [F]
Mars 1969A | USSR [O]
Mars 1969B | USSR [O]

Mariner 8 | NASA [O]
Cosmos 419 | USSR [O]
Mars 2 | USSR [O+L]
Mars 3 | USSR [O+L]
Mariner 9 | NASA [O]

DID YOU KNOW?
All Venusian landers so
far have incorporated
spherical structures,
because that shape
best withstands collapse
under the tremendous
atmospheric pressure. In
fact, the pressure is similar
to what you'd experience
nearly 1 km beneath the
ocean's surface on Earth.

Mars 4 | USSR [O]
Mars 5 | USSR [O]
Mars 6 | USSR [F+L]
Mars 7 | USSR [F+L]
Viking 1 | NASA [O+L]
Viking 2 | NASA [O+L]

Phobos 1 | USSR [O+L]
Phobos 2 | USSR [O+L]

Mars Observer | NASA [O]
Mars Global Surveyor | NASA [O]
Mars 96 | Roscosmos [O+L+Pe]
Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner | NASA [L+R]
Nozomi | JAXA [O]
Mars Climate Orbiter | NASA [O]
Mars Polar Lander/Deep Space 2 | NASA [L+Pe]
Mars Odyssey | NASA [O]
Mars Express/Beagle 2 | ESA [O+L]
Mars Exploration Rover Spirit | NASA [R]
Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity | NASA [R]
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter | NASA [O]
Phoenix Mars | NASA [L]
Phobos-Grunt/Yinghuo-1 | Roscosmos and CNSA [O+S]
Curiosity | NASA [R]
Mars Orbiter Mission/Mangalyaan | ISRO [O]
MAVEN | NASA [O]
ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter/Schiaparelli | ESA and Roscosmos [O+L]

18

S E P TE M B E R 2 018 * SK Y & TELESCOPE

Launch
1960
1960
1961
1961
1962
1962
1962
1962
1962
1962
1962
1962
1963
1964
1964
1964
1964
1964
1964
1964
1965
1965
1965
1965
1967
1967
1967
1969
1969
1969
1969
1969
1969
1970
1970
1971
1971
1971
1971
1971
1972
1972
1973
1973
1973
1973
1973
1975
1975
1975
1975
1978
1978
1978
1978
1981
1981
1983
1983
1984
1984
1988
1988
1989
1989
1992
1996
1996
1996
1997
1998
1998
1999
2001
2003
2003
2003
2004
2005
2005
2007
2010
2011
2011
2013
2013
2016

VENUS
Sputnik 7 | USSR [Pr]
Venera 1 | USSR [F]

Mariner 1 | NASA [F]
Sputnik 19 | USSR [F]
Mariner 2 | NASA [F]
Sputnik 20 | USSR [F]
Sputnik 21 | USSR [F]
Cosmos 21 | USSR [U]

Venera 1964A | USSR [F]
Venera 1964B | USSR [F]
Cosmos 27 | USSR [F]
Zond 1 | USSR [F]
Venera 2 | USSR [F]
Venera 3 | USSR [L]
Cosmos 96 | USSR [L]
Venera 1965A | USSR [F]
Venera 4 | USSR [Pr]
Mariner 5 | NASA [F]
Cosmos 167 | USSR [Pr]

Venera 5 | USSR [Pr]
Venera 6 | USSR [Pr]
Venera 7 | USSR [L]
Cosmos 359 | USSR [Pr]

Venera 8 | USSR [Pr]
Cosmos 482 | USSR [Pr]

Mariner 10 | NASA [F]

Venera 9 | USSR [O+L]
Venera 10 | USSR [O+L]
Pioneer Venus 1 | NASA [O]
Pioneer Venus 2 | NASA [Pr]
Venera 11 | USSR [F+L]
Venera 12 | USSR [F+L]
Venera 13 | USSR [F+L]
Venera 14 | USSR [F+L]
Venera 15 | USSR [O]
Venera 16 | USSR [O]
Vega 1 | USSR [L+B]
Vega 2 | USSR [L+B]

Magellan | NASA [O]
Galileo | NASA [F]

Cassini | NASA [Fx2]

Messenger | NASA [Fx2]
Venus Express | ESA [O]
Akatsuki | JAXA [O]



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Sky and Telescope - September 2018

Contents
Sky and Telescope - September 2018 - Cover1
Sky and Telescope - September 2018 - Cover2
Sky and Telescope - September 2018 - 1
Sky and Telescope - September 2018 - Contents
Sky and Telescope - September 2018 - 3
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