Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - 2

introduction
Refrigeration is a complex topic that covers a wide range of
areas. Refrigeration relates to the cooling of substances to
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preserve and transport food products,
produce ice,
aid in the manufacturing of many commercial products,
and
aid in medical research.

In addition, refrigeration plays vital roles in many other
industrial, commercial, and residential applications. Airconditioning, a form of refrigeration, refers to space heating,
cooling, dehumidifying, humidifying, air filtering, exhausting, ventilating, and improving overall indoor air quality for
those in the occupied space.

HISToRy of REfRIGERaTIoN
aND aIR-CoNDITIoNING
(CooLING)
Most evidence indicates that the Chinese, as early as 1000
b.c., were the first to store ice and snow in order to cool
wine and other food products. Early Greeks and Romans
used underground pits, which were insulated with straw and

1834
L. W. Wright produced ice
by expansion of compressed air. Jacob Perkins
developed a closed
refrigeration system using
expansion of a liquid and
compression to produce
cooling. david Perkins
developed a closed
refrigeration system using
the expansion and compression of ether.

1800

1823

Michael Faraday discovered
that certain gases under constant pressure will condense
when they cool.

weeds, to store ice for long periods of time. The ancient people of Egypt and India cooled liquids in porous earthen jars.
These jars were set out in the dry night air, and the evaporation of the liquids seeping through the porous walls provided
the cooling. Some evidence indicates that ice was even produced from the vaporization of water through the walls of
these jars.
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, natural ice
was cut from lakes and ponds in the winter in the northern
United States and stored underground for use in the warmer
months. Some of this ice was packed in sawdust and transported to southern states to be used for preserving food. In
the early twentieth century, it was still common in the northern states for ice to be cut from ponds and then stored in
open ice houses. Sawdust insulated the ice, which was then
delivered to homes and businesses.
In 1823, Michael Faraday discovered that certain gases
under constant pressure will condense when they cool. In 1834,
Jacob Perkins, an American, developed a closed refrigeration
system using liquid expansion and then compression to produce cooling. He used ether as a refrigerant, a hand-operated
compressor, a water-cooled condenser, and an evaporator in a
liquid cooler. He was awarded a British patent for this system.
In Great Britain during the same year, L. W. Wright produced
ice by the expansion of compressed air.

1842
John Gorrie used
dripping ammonia
to produce cooling.

1881

1875
raoul Pictet used sulfur
dioxide as a refrigerant.

Gustavus Swift was
developing refrigeration
railcars.

1850

1858

Ferdinand carré developed an ammonia
mechanical refrigerator.
it made blocks of ice.

1890
Michael cudahy improved
railcar refrigeration.



Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e

Contents
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - Cover1
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - Cover2
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - i
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - ii
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - iii
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - Contents
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Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - Cover4
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