Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - 4
Section 1 Theory of Heat
compressor. Three engineering changes made these compressors successful:
of hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants at their
1986 levels, beginning in 1992. In addition, the Protocol
set a schedule of taxes on CFC refrigerants. As research
on ozone depletion continues today, reassessments and
updates to the Montreal Protocol also continue. At the
time of this writing, the most current updates are as
1. Cloth-insulated motor windings were replaced with
2. Neoprene insulation replaced porcelain enamel in the
3. Valves were redesigned to improve efficiency.
Many different refrigerants have been developed over
the years. The refrigerant R-12, a chlorofluorocarbon
(CFC), was developed in 1931 by Thomas Midgley of Ethyl
Corporation and C. F. Kettering of General Motors. It was
produced by DuPont. In 1974, two professors from the
University of California, Sherwood Rowland and Mario
Molina, presented the "ozone theory." Their hypothesis
was that CFC refrigerants released into the atmosphere
were depleting the earth's protective ozone layer. Scientists
conducted high-altitude studies and concluded that CFCs
were indeed linked to ozone depletion. Representatives
from the United States, Canada, and more than 30 other
countries met in Montreal, Canada, in September, 1987,
to try to solve the problem of released refrigerants and the
effect they had on ozone depletion. This meeting produced
the Montreal Protocol, which by 1989 had been ratified by
100 nations. It mandated a global freeze on the production
of CFCs at 1986 levels. The Protocol also froze production
1990 (November)-President George H. W. Bush signed
the Clean Air Act amendments that initiated production
freezes and bans on certain refrigerants.
1992 (July)-The EPA made it against the law to intentionally vent CFC and HCFC refrigerants into the atmosphere.
1993-The EPA mandated the recycling of CFC and
1994 (November)-The EPA mandated a technician certification program deadline. Current HVAC/R technicians
had to be EPA-certified by this date.
1995 (November)-The EPA made it against the law to
intentionally vent alternative refrigerants (HFCs and all
refrigerant blends) into the atmosphere.
1996-The EPA made it illegal to manufacture or import
1996-The EPA put into place a gradual HCFC production phaseout schedule, which will totally phase out the
production of HCFC refrigerants by the year 2030.
Household refrigerator sales topped
First successful semihermetic (copelametic)
compressor introduced by
the copeland company.
Sales started in 1939. it
was a field serviceable
was developed by
and c. F. Kettering.
A number of chlorofluorocarbons (cFcs)
were developed during this period.
and Molina presented the "ozone
theory" that cFcs
were depleting the
clean Air Act
and bans on certain refrigerants.
Signed by President
George H. W. Bush,
ratified by 100
technician certification required to
and A/c equipment or to buy
refrigerants as of
the ePA made it illegal to
intentionally vent cFc and
HcFc refrigerants into the